Tax Rates and Allowances 2022/23

Tax Rates and Allowances 2022/23

Introduction

We have summarised the key rates and allowances which are fundamental to our business and personal lives. We are sure that you will find them a useful point of reference and have set out below a few examples of how they can be used.

Personal tax rates

As the UK tax system becomes more devolved, it is important to keep abreast of the changes taking place in the Scottish and Welsh income tax rates and bands. We have summarised the relevant information together with the rates and allowances which apply to investment income.

Buying property

If you buy property then property taxes payable are different depending where the property is in the United Kingdom. Stamp Duty Land Tax is payable on property in England and Northern Ireland, whilst Land and Buildings Transaction Tax is payable on property in Scotland and Land Transaction Tax on property in Wales. Our tax rates highlight the main rates so that you can consider the potential cost of buying property.

Business or asset sale

If you sell an asset such as shares or your business, capital gains tax may be due. Our tax rates highlight the main rates and reliefs so that you can consider the tax bill that may arise.

Rates for businesses

If you run a business, obtaining the right allowances on equipment that your business buys can affect the tax that your business has to pay each year. We have summarised the main allowances that are available.

Rates for employees

There are changes to the way company car benefits are calculated this year. Our guide explains how these are computed to help ensure that you are paying the correct amount of tax.

Rates that affect us all

Long term planning for a comfortable retirement can never start too early. Our tax rates explain how much can be contributed to an approved pension scheme each year tax efficiently.

Our tax rates contain the main inheritance tax rates and exemptions but early planning can mitigate these tremendously.


These rates are intended for use as a quick point of reference. Should you require any further information, have a simple question or require detailed advice we are only a phone call away.

Capital Gains Tax
  • CGT is payable by individuals, trustees and personal representatives (PRs). Companies pay corporation tax on their capital gains.
  • There are annual tax-free allowances (the ‘annual exempt amount’) for individuals, trustees and PRs. Companies do not have an annual exempt amount.
  • For individuals, net gains are added to total taxable income to determine the appropriate rate of tax. The standard rate applies only to the net gains which, when added to total taxable income, do not exceed the basic rate band.
  • Gains which qualify for Investors’ Relief are charged at 10% for the first £10m of qualifying gains.
  • Gains which qualify for Business Asset Disposal Relief are charged at 10% for the first £1 million.

Rates and annual exemption

Individuals 2022/23
  £
Exemption 12,300
Standard rate 10%
Higher rate 20%

The higher rate applies to higher rate and additional rate taxpayers.

Gains accruing on the disposal of certain residential property and arising on carried interest can attract a standard rate of 18% or a higher rate of 28% for individuals and of 28% for Trusts and Personal Representatives.

Trusts 2022/23
  £
Exemption 6,150
Rate 20%

 

  • CGT is payable by individuals, trustees and personal representatives (PRs) . Companies pay corporation tax on their capital gains.
  • There are annual tax-free allowances (the ‘annual exempt amount’) for individuals, trustees and PRs. Companies do not have an annual exempt amount.
  • For individuals, net gains are added to total taxable income to determine the appropriate rate of tax. The standard rate applies only to the net gains which, when added to total taxable income, do not exceed the basic rate band.
  • Gains which qualify for Investors’ Relief are charged at 10% for the first £10m of qualifying gains.
  • Gains which qualify for Business Asset Disposal Relief are charged at 10% for the first £1 million.

Rates and annual exemption

Individuals 2021/22
  £
Exemption 12,300
Standard rate 10%
Higher rate 20%

The higher rate applies to higher rate and additional rate taxpayers.

Gains accruing on the disposal of certain residential property and arising on carried interest can attract a standard rate of 18% or a higher rate of 28% for individuals and a rate of 28% for Trusts and Personal Representatives.

Trusts 2021/22
  £
Exemption 6,150
Rate 20%
Car Benefits
  • The car benefit is calculated by multiplying the car’s list price, when new, by a percentage linked to the car’s CO2 emissions. 
  • For diesel cars generally add a 4% supplement (unless the car is registered on or after 1 September 2017 and meets the Euro 6d emissions standard).
  • The overall maximum percentage is capped at 37%.
  • The list price includes accessories.
  • The list price is reduced for capital contributions made by the employee up to £5,000.
  • Special rules may apply to cars provided for disabled employees.

 

2022/23

CO2 emissions
(g/km)

% of list price taxed

0

2

1–50 (split by zero-emission miles)

More than 130

70-129

40-69

30-39

Under 30

2

5

8

12

14

51–54

15

55-59

16

60-64

17

65-69

18

70-74

19

75-79

20

80-84

21

85-89

22

90-94

23

95-99

24

100-104

25

105-109

26

110-114

27

115-119

28

120-124

29

125-129

30

130-134

31

135-139

32

140-144

33

145-149

34

150-154

35

155-159

36

160 and above

37

  • The car benefit is calculated by multiplying the car’s list price, when new, by a percentage linked to the car’s CO emissions.
  • For diesel cars generally add a 4% supplement (unless the car is registered on or after 1 September 2017 and meets the Euro 6d emissions standard).
  • The overall maximum percentage is capped at 37%.
  • The list price includes accessories.
  • The list price is reduced for capital contributions made by the employee up to £5,000.
  • Special rules may apply to cars provided for disabled employees.

2021/22

Cars registered pre 6/4/20

Cars registered after 5/4/20

CO emissions
(g/km)

% of list price taxed

% of list price taxed

0

1

1

1–50 (split by zero-emission miles)

More than 130

70-129

40-69

30-39

Under 30

2

5

8

12

14

1

4

7

11

13

51–54

15

14

55-59

16

15

60-64

17

16

65-69

18

17

70-74

19

18

75-79

20

19

80-84

21

20

85-89

22

21

90-94

23

22

95-99

24

23

100-104

25

24

105-109

26

25

110-114

27

26

115-119

28

27

120-124

29

28

125-129

30

29

130-134

31

30

135-139

32

31

140-144

33

32

145-149

34

33

150-154

35

34

155-159

36

35

160-164

37

36

165 and above

n/a

37

Car Fuel Benefit
  • Car fuel benefit applies if an employee has the benefit of private fuel for a company car.
  • The benefit is calculated by applying the percentage used to calculate the car benefit by a ‘fuel charge multiplier’.
  • The charge is proportionately reduced if provision of private fuel ceases part way through the year. The fuel benefit is reduced to nil only if the employee pays for all private fuel.
Car fuel benefit 2022/23  
Fuel charge multiplier £25,300

 

  • Car fuel benefit applies if an employee has the benefit of private fuel for a company car.
  • The benefit is calculated by applying the percentage used to calculate the car benefit by a ‘fuel charge multiplier’.
  • The charge is proportionately reduced if provision of private fuel ceases part way through the year. The fuel benefit is reduced to nil only if the employee pays for all private fuel.
Car fuel benefit 2021/22  
Fuel charge multiplier £24,600
Cars - Advisory fuel rates for company cars
  • Advisory rates only apply where employers reimburse employees for business travel in a company car or require employees to repay the cost of fuel used for private travel in a company car.
  • If the rate paid per mile of business travel is no higher than the advisory rate for the particular engine size and fuel type of the car, HMRC will accept that there is no taxable profit and no Class 1 NIC liability.

The advisory fuel rates for journeys undertaken on or after 1 March 2022 are:

Engine size Petrol
1400cc or less 13p
1401cc – 2000cc 15p
Over 2000cc 22p

 

Engine size Diesel
1600cc or less 11p
1601cc – 2000cc 13p
Over 2000cc 16p

 

Engine size LPG
1400cc or less 8p
1401cc – 2000cc 10p
Over 2000cc 15p

Hybrid cars are treated as either petrol or diesel cars for this purpose.

The Advisory Electricity Rate for fully electric cars is 5 pence per mile. Electricity is not a fuel for car fuel benefit purposes.

Capital Allowances - Plant and Machinery
 
 
  • The cost of purchasing capital equipment in a business is not a revenue tax deductible expense. However, tax relief is available on certain capital expenditure in the form of capital allowances.
  • Plant and machinery allowances may be available on items such as machines, equipment, furniture, certain fixtures in a building (‘integral features’), computers, cars, vans and similar equipment used in a business.
  • There are special rules for cars.
  • Plant and machinery allowances may be available to owners of commercial property which is let out to a business.
  • The Annual Investment Allowance (AIA) gives a 100% write-off on most types of plant and machinery (but not cars) up to an annual limit.
  • Writing down allowances (WDA) are given for expenditure for which AIA is not, or cannot be, claimed.
  • A Structures and Buildings Allowance of 3% may be available for qualifying investments to construct new, or renovate old, non-residential structures and buildings.

AIA

  • Special rules apply to accounting periods straddling the dates shown in the tables below.
  • The AIA may need to be shared between certain businesses under common ownership.

AIA limits – companies

Expenditure incurred:

Annual limit

  £
From 1 January 2019 to 31 March 2023 1,000,000
From 1 April 2023 200,000

AIA limits – sole traders and partnerships

Expenditure incurred:

Annual limit

  £
From 1 January 2019 to 31 March 2023 1,000,000
From 1 April 2023 200,000

Other plant and machinery allowances

  • Expenditure upon which AIA is not given/claimed will obtain relief through the ‘main rate pool’ or the ‘special rate pool’ rather than each item being dealt with separately.
  • The annual rate of WDA is 18% in the ‘main rate pool’ and 6% in the ‘special rate pool’.
  • A 100% first year allowance (FYA) may be available on certain cars.
  • Between 1 April 2021 and 31 March 2023, companies investing in qualifying new plant and machinery will benefit from a new FYA. A company will be allowed to claim a super-deduction of 130% on certain new plant and machinery investments that ordinarily qualify for the 18% WDA and a 50% FYA on most new plant and machinery investments that ordinarily qualify for the 6% WDA.

Cars

  • For expenditure incurred on cars, costs are generally allocated to one of the two plant and machinery pools.
  • AIA is not available on any car but a 100% FYA may be available on certain cars. To qualify for FYA, the car must be purchased new.

Cars acquired from April 2021

Emissions (g/km)

Pool

Allowance

0 Main rate 100% FYA
≤ 50 Main rate 18% WDA
>50 Special rate 6% WDA

 

  • The cost of purchasing capital equipment in a business is not a revenue tax deductible expense. However, tax relief is available on certain capital expenditure in the form of capital allowances.
  • Plant and machinery allowances may be available on items such as machines, equipment, furniture, certain fixtures in a building (‘ integral features ‘), computers, cars, vans and similar equipment used in a business.
  • There are special rules for cars.
  • Plant and machinery allowances may be available to owners of commercial property which is let out to a business.
  • The Annual Investment Allowance (AIA) gives a 100% write-off on most types of plant and machinery (but not cars) up to an annual limit.
  • Writing down allowances (WDA) are given for expenditure for which AIA is not, or cannot be, claimed.
  • A Structures and Buildings Allowance of 3% may be available for qualifying investments to construct new, or renovate old, non-residential structures and buildings.

AIA

  • Special rules apply to accounting periods straddling the dates shown in the tables below.
  • The AIA may need to be shared between certain businesses under common ownership.

AIA limits – companies

Expenditure incurred:

Annual limit

  £
From 1 January 2019 to 31 March 2023 1,000,000
From 1 April 2023 200,000

AIA limits – sole traders and partnerships

Expenditure incurred:

Annual limit

  £
From 1 January 2019 to 31 March 2023 1,000,000
From 1 April 2023 200,000

Other plant and machinery allowances

  • Expenditure upon which AIA is not given/claimed will obtain relief through the ‘ main rate pool ‘ or the ‘ special rate pool ‘ rather than each item being dealt with separately.
  • The annual rate of WDA is 18% in the ‘ main rate pool ‘ and 6% in the ‘ special rate pool ‘.
  • A 100% first year allowance (FYA) may be available on certain cars.

Cars

  • For expenditure incurred on cars, costs are generally allocated to one of the two plant and machinery pools.
  • AIA is not available on any car but a 100% FYA may be available on certain cars. To qualify for FYA, the car must be purchased new.

Cars acquired from April 2021

Emissions (g/km)

Pool

Allowance

0 Main rate 100% FYA
≤ 50 Main rate 18% WDA
>50 Special rate 6% WDA
Child Benefit
Child Benefit is receivable by a person responsible for each child who is under 16, or under 20 if they stay in approved education or training.If the person (or their spouse or partner) has ‘adjusted net income’ above £50,000 the person with the highest income has to pay some of the Child Benefit as a tax charge.

Where adjusted net income is more than £60,000 a year, the tax charge equals the Child Benefit received.

Rates – 2022/23 £ per week
Eldest/Only Child £21.80
Other Children £14.45
Child Benefit is receivable by a person responsible for each child who is under 16, or under 20 if they stay in approved education or training.If the person (or their spouse or partner) has ‘ adjusted net income ‘ above £50,000 the person with the highest income has to pay some of the Child Benefit as a tax charge.

Where adjusted net income is more than £60,000 a year, the tax charge equals the Child Benefit received.

Rates – 2021/22 £ per week
Eldest/Only Child £21.15
Other Children £14.00
Corporation Tax Rates
  • Corporation tax rates are set for each Financial Year. A Financial Year runs from 1 April to the following 31 March.
  • If the accounting period of a company straddles the 31 March, the profits are apportioned on a time basis to each Financial Year.
  • The Northern Ireland Executive has committed to setting the rate of corporation tax at 12.5% to apply to certain trading income. While legislation has been passed, the final devolution is subject to agreement between the UK Government and the Northern Ireland Executive, which has not yet been reached.
Year to 31.3.23 Rate %
All profits 19
  • Corporation tax rates are set for each Financial Year. A Financial Year runs from 1 April to the following 31 March.
  • If the accounting period of a company straddles the 31 March, the profits are apportioned on a time basis to each Financial Year.
  • The Northern Ireland Executive has committed to setting the rate of corporation tax at 12.5% to apply to certain trading income.  While legislation has been passed, the final devolution is subject to agreement between the UK Government and the Northern Ireland Executive, which has not yet been reached.
Year to 31.3.22 Rate %
All profits 19
Employee Statutory Payments

Statutory pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer if an employee is not at work for a variety of reasons.
  • There are detailed conditions for an employee to qualify for any of these statutory payments.
  • Employees are only eligible for a statutory payment if they have sufficient average weekly earnings of at least the lower earnings limit.

Statutory Sick Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer if an employee is too ill to work.
  • SSP is generally payable for a period up to 28 weeks.

Statutory Maternity Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer when an employee takes time off to have a baby.
  • SMP is payable for a period up to 39 weeks.

Statutory Paternity Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer when an employee takes time off during their partner’s Statutory Maternity Pay period.
  • Payment is for a period of either one or two complete weeks.

Shared Parental Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer when an employee takes time off following the curtailment of the period of SMP by the mother.
  • Payment is for up to a maximum of 37 weeks and is dependent on the mother’s unused SMP period.

Statutory Adoption Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer when an employee takes time off when they adopt a child.
  • Payment is for a period up to 39 weeks.

Statutory Parental Bereavement Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer when parents take time off following the death of a child or a stillbirth.
  • Payment is for up to a maximum of two weeks.
2022/23 Statutory pay rates –
average weekly earnings £123 or over
 
Statutory Sick Pay £99.35
Statutory Maternity Pay  
First six weeks 90% of weekly earnings
Next 33 weeks £156.66
Statutory Paternity Pay – two weeks £156.66
Statutory Adoption Pay – 39 weeks  
First six weeks 90% of weekly earnings
Next 33 weeks £156.66
Shared Parental Pay £156.66
Statutory Parental Bereavement Pay – two weeks £156.66

With the exception of Statutory Sick Pay, statutory payments may
be payable at 90% average weekly earnings throughout the payment period
in certain circumstances. This applies where 90% weekly earnings
are less than the standard rate of £156.66.

Statutory pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer if an employee is not at work for a variety of reasons.
  • There are detailed conditions for an employee to qualify for any of these statutory payments.
  • Employees are only eligible for a statutory payment if they have sufficient average weekly earnings of at least the lower earnings limit.

Statutory Sick Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer if an employee is too ill to work.
  • SSP is generally payable for a period up to 28 weeks.

SSP support during coronavirus outbreak

The government temporarily made SSP more accessible to employees in response to the coronavirus outbreak. During the outbreak SSP was available from the first day of absence, including for those self-isolating or caring for others.

The government supported small and medium-sized businesses and employers to cope with the extra costs of paying coronavirus related SSP by refunding eligible SSP costs.

Statutory Maternity Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer when an employee takes time off to have a baby.
  • SMP is payable for a period up to 39 weeks.

Statutory Paternity Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer when an employee takes time off during their partner’s Statutory Maternity Pay period.
  • Payment is for a period of either one or two complete weeks.

Shared Parental Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer when an employee takes time off following the curtailment of the period of SMP by the mother.
  • Payment is for up to a maximum of 37 weeks and is dependent on the mother’s unused SMP period.

Statutory Adoption Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer when an employee takes time off when they adopt a child.
  • Payment is for a period up to 39 weeks.

Statutory Parental Bereavement Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer when parents take time off following the death of a child or a stillbirth.
  • Payment is for up to a maximum of two weeks.
2021/22 Statutory pay rates –
average weekly earnings £120 or over
 
Statutory Sick Pay £96.35
Statutory Maternity Pay  
First six weeks 90% of weekly earnings
Next 33 weeks £151.97
Statutory Paternity Pay – two weeks £151.97
Statutory Adoption Pay – 39 weeks  
First six weeks 90% of weekly earnings
Next 33 weeks £151.97
Shared Parental Pay £151.97
Statutory Parental Bereavement Pay – two weeks £151.97

With the exception of Statutory Sick Pay, statutory payments may
be payable at 90% average weekly earnings throughout the payment period
in certain circumstances. This applies where 90% weekly earnings
are less than the standard rate of £151.97.

Income Tax Allowances
A personal allowance gives an individual an annual amount of income free from income tax.

Income above the personal allowances is subject to income tax.

The personal allowance will be reduced if an individual’s ‘adjusted net income’ is above £100,000. The allowance is reduced by £1 for every £2 of income above £100,000.

An individual born before 6 April 1935 may be entitled to a married couple’s allowance but this is reduced if ‘adjusted net income’ is above the married couple’s allowance income limit (see table below).

Marriage allowance – 10% of the personal allowance may be transferable between certain spouses where neither pays tax above the basic rate. The Marriage allowance is not available to couples entitled to the Married Couple’s allowance.

Income tax personal allowances £
Personal Allowance 12,570
Marriage Allowance 1,260
Blind person’s allowance 2,600

Married couple’s allowance

Either partner born before 6 April 1935

 
– Maximum reduction in tax bill 941.50
– Minimum reduction in tax bill 364.00

Married couple’s allowance income limit

Reduce married couple’s allowance by £1 for every £2 of ‘adjusted net income’ above this limit

31,400
A personal allowance gives an individual an annual amount of income free from income tax.

Income above the personal allowances is subject to income tax.

The personal allowance will be reduced if an individual’s ‘ adjusted net income ‘ is above £100,000. The allowance is reduced by £1 for every £2 of income above £100,000.

An individual born before 6 April 1935 may be entitled to a married couple’s allowance but this is reduced if ‘ adjusted net income ‘ is above the married couple’s allowance income limit (see table below).

Marriage allowance – 10% of the personal allowance may be transferable between certain spouses where neither pays tax above the basic rate. The Marriage allowance is not available to couples entitled to the Married Couple’s allowance.

Income tax personal allowances £
Personal Allowance 12,570
Marriage Allowance 1,260
Blind person’s allowance 2,520

Married couple’s allowance

Either partner born before 6 April 1935

 
– Maximum reduction in tax bill 912.50
– Minimum reduction in tax bill 353.00

Married couple’s allowance income limit

Reduce married couple’s allowance by £1 for every £2 of ‘adjusted net income’ above this limit

30,400
Income Tax Rates - Across the UK
  • Income tax applies to the amount of income after deduction of personal allowances.
  • Income is taxed in a specific order with savings and dividend income taxed last.
  • Dividend income and savings income falling within the dividend and savings allowances still form part of total income of an individual.
  • There is also a starting rate band (SRB) of £5,000 which is only applicable to savings income. The band is not available if the taxable amount of non-savings income exceeds the SRB.
  • The Scottish Parliament set the rates of income tax and the limits at which these rates apply for Scottish residents on non-savings and non-dividend income.
  • Income tax is devolved to Wales on non-savings and non-dividend income.

Income tax rates

Band of taxable income Rate Rate if dividends
£   % %
0 – 37,700 Basic rate 20 8.75
37,701 – 150,000 Higher rate 40 33.75
Over 150,000 Additional rate 45 39.35
Special rates for savings and dividend income falling into above bands of taxable income
Savings Allowance
Basic rate taxpayers 1,000 0  
Higher rate taxpayers 500 0  
Additional rate taxpayers Nil N/A  
Dividend Allowance
for all taxpayers 2,000   0

 

  • Income tax applies to the amount of income after deduction of personal allowances.
  • Income is taxed in a specific order with savings and dividend income taxed last.
  • Dividend income and savings income falling within the dividend and savings allowances still form part of total income of an individual.
  • There is also a starting rate band (SRB) of £5,000 which is only applicable to savings income. The band is not available if the taxable amount of non-savings income exceeds the SRB.
  • The Scottish Parliament set the rates of income tax and the limits at which these rates apply for Scottish residents on non-savings and non-dividend income.
  • Income tax is devolved to Wales on non-savings and non-dividend income.

Income tax rates

Band of taxable income Rate Rate if dividends
£   % %
0 – 37,700 Basic rate 20 7.5
37,701 – 150,000 Higher rate 40 32.5
Over 150,000 Additional rate 45 38.1
Special rates for savings and dividend income falling into above bands of taxable income
Savings Allowance
Basic rate taxpayers 1,000 0  
Higher rate taxpayers 500 0  
Additional rate taxpayers Nil N/A  
Dividend Allowance
for all taxpayers 2,000   0
Income Tax Rate - Scotland
  • Scottish resident taxpayers are liable on non-savings and non-dividend income as set out below.
  • Savings income and dividend income are taxed using UK tax rates and bands.
Band of taxable income Rate
£   %
0 – 2,162 Starter rate 19
2,163 – 13,118 Basic rate 20
13,119 – 31,092 Intermediate rate 21
31,093 – 150,000 Higher rate 41
Over 150,000 Top rate 46

 

  • Scottish resident taxpayers are liable on non-savings and non-dividend income as set out below.
  • Savings income and dividend income are taxed using UK tax rates and bands.
Band of taxable income Rate
£   %
0 – 2,097 Starter rate 19
2,098 – 12,726 Basic rate 20
12,727 – 31,092 Intermediate rate 21
31,093 – 150,000 Higher rate 41
Over 150,000 Top rate 46
Income Tax Rates - Wales
  • Income tax is devolved to Wales.
  • Welsh resident taxpayers continue to pay the same overall income tax rates using the UK rates and bands.
  • The total rate of income tax = UK income tax + Welsh rate of income tax
  • Savings income and dividend income are taxed using UK tax rates and bands.
Band of taxable income UK Rate Welsh Rate Total Rate
£   % % %
0 – 37,700 Basic rate 10 10 20
37,701 – 150,000 Higher rate 30 10 40
Over 150,000 Additional rate 35 10 45

 

  • Income tax is devolved to Wales from 6 April 2019.
  • Welsh resident taxpayers continue to pay the same overall income tax rates using the UK rates and bands.
  • The total rate of income tax = UK income tax + Welsh rate of income tax
  • Savings income and dividend income are taxed using UK tax rates and bands.
Band of taxable income UK Rate Welsh Rate Total Rate
£   % % %
0 – 37,700 Basic rate 10 10 20
37,701 – 150,000 Higher rate 30 10 40
Over 150,000 Additional rate 35 10 45
Individual Savings Account (ISA)
The income from ISA investments is exempt from income tax. Any capital gains made on investments held in an ISA are exempt from capital gains tax.

Savers are able to subscribe any amounts into a cash ISA, a stocks and shares ISA or an innovative finance ISA subject to not exceeding the overall annual investment limit.

Investors may transfer their investments from one kind of ISA to another.

The Lifetime ISA is available for those aged between 18 and 40. Save up to £4,000 each year up until the age of 50, and receive a government bonus of 25% (a bonus of up to £1,000 a year). Savers can use some or all of the money to buy their first home, or keep it until they are aged 60 when the account can be accessed tax free. Conditions apply to the account holder and property purchased.  Penalties apply if funds are withdrawn in other circumstances.

A Help to Buy ISA provides a tax free savings account for first time buyers wishing to save for a home. The scheme provides a government bonus to each person who has saved into a Help to Buy ISA at the point they use their savings to purchase their first home. For every £200 a first time buyer saves, the government will provide a £50 bonus up to a maximum bonus of £3,000 on £12,000 of savings. The bonus will be paid in the form of a voucher when the first home is purchased. Conditions apply to the account holder and to the property purchased. Help to Buy ISAs closed to new savers on 30 November 2019. Existing holders can continue saving until 30 November 2029 and will have until 1 December 2030 to claim their bonus.

ISA limits 2022/23  
Overall annual investment limit £20,000
Junior ISA annual investment limit £9,000
Help to Buy ISA monthly subscription limit £200
Lifetime ISA annual investment limit £4,000
The income from ISA investments is exempt from income tax. Any capital gains made on investments held in an ISA are exempt from capital gains tax.

Savers are able to subscribe any amounts into a cash ISA, a stocks and shares ISA or an innovative finance ISA subject to not exceeding the overall annual investment limit.

Investors may transfer their investments from one kind of ISA to another.

The Lifetime ISA is available for those aged between 18 and 40. Save up to £4,000 each year up until the age of 50, and receive a government bonus of 25% (a bonus of up to £1,000 a year). Savers can use some or all of the money to buy their first home, or keep it until they are aged 60 when the account can be accessed tax free. Conditions apply to the account holder and property purchased.  Penalties apply if funds are withdrawn in other circumstances.

A Help to Buy ISA provides a tax free savings account for first time buyers wishing to save for a home. The scheme provides a government bonus to each person who has saved into a Help to Buy ISA at the point they use their savings to purchase their first home. For every £200 a first time buyer saves, the government will provide a £50 bonus up to a maximum bonus of £3,000 on £12,000 of savings. The bonus will be paid in the form of a voucher when the first home is purchased. Conditions apply to the account holder and to the property purchased. Help to Buy ISAs closed to new savers on 30 November 2019. Existing holders can continue saving until 30 November 2029 and will have until 1 December 2030 to claim their bonus.

ISA limits 2021/22  
Overall annual investment limit £20,000
Junior ISA annual investment limit £9,000
Help to Buy ISA monthly subscription limit £200
Lifetime ISA annual investment limit £4,000
Inheritance Tax (IHT)
  • IHT may be payable when an individual’s estate is worth more than the IHT nil rate band when they die.
  • Lifetime and death transfers between UK domiciled spouses are exempt from IHT.
  • A further nil rate band of £175,000 may be available in relation to current or former residences.
  • The IHT threshold available on death may be increased for surviving spouses as there may have been a nil rate band not used, or not fully used, on the first death.
  • There are reliefs for some business and farming assets which reduce their value for IHT purposes.
  • IHT may also be payable on gifts made in an individual’s lifetime but within seven years of death.
  • Some lifetime gifts are exempt.
  • Transfers of assets into trust made in an individual’s lifetime may be subject to an immediate charge but at lifetime rates.
  • There are also charges on some trusts.

IHT rates and nil rate band 2022/23 and 2021/22

IHT nil rate £325,000
Lifetime rate 20%
Death rate 40%
Death rate if sufficient charitable legacies made 36%

IHT reliefs for lifetime gifts

Annual exemption £3,000
Small gifts £250
Marriage  
– parent £5,000
– grandparent £2,500
– other £1,000

IHT – reduced charge on gifts within seven years of death

Years before death % of death charge
0-3 100
3-4 80
4-5 60
5-6 40
6-7 20
Land and Buildings Transaction Tax
Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT) is payable on land and property transactions in Scotland.

LBTT (Residential property)

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 145,000 0%
145,001 – 250,000 2%
250,001 – 325,000 5%
325,001 – 750,000 10%
750,001 and above 12%

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

Residential rates may be increased by 4% where further residential properties, costing over £40,000, are acquired.

First-time Buyer relief raises the zero rate tax threshold for first-time buyers from £145,000 to £175,000.

LBTT (Non-residential)

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 150,000 0%
150,001 – 250,000 1%
Over 250,000 5%

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT) is payable on land and property transactions in Scotland.

LBTT (Residential property)

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 145,000 0%
145,001 – 250,000 2%
250,001 – 325,000 5%
325,001 – 750,000 10%
750,001 and above 12%

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

Residential rates may be increased by 4% where further residential properties, costing over £40,000, are acquired.

First-time Buyer relief raises the zero rate tax threshold for first-time buyers from £145,000 to £175,000.

LBTT (Non-residential)

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 150,000 0%
150,001 – 250,000 1%
Over 250,000 5%

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

Land Transaction Tax
Land Transaction Tax (LTT) is payable on land and property transactions in Wales.

LTT (Residential property)

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 180,000 0%
180,001 – 250,000 3.5%
250,001 – 400,000 5%
400,001 – 750,000 7.5%
750,001 – 1,500,000 10%
1,500,000 and above 12%

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

Residential rates may be increased by 4% where further residential properties costing over £40,000 or over are acquired.

Higher residential tax rates

Higher residential rates may apply when you already own one or more residential properties.

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 180,000 4%
180,001 – 250,000 7.5%
250,001 – 400,000 9%
400,001 – 750,000 11.5%
750,001 – 1,500,000 14%
1,500,000 and above 16%

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

LTT (Non-residential)

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 225,000 0%
225,001 – 250,000 1%
250,001 – 1,000,000 5%
Over 1,000,000 6%

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

Land Transaction Tax (LTT) is payable on land and property transactions in Wales.

LTT (Residential property)

Rates applying to 30 June 2021

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 250,000 0%
250,001 – 400,000 5%
400,001 – 750,000 7.5%
750,001 – 1,500,000 10%
1,500,000 and above 12%

Rates applying from 1 July 2021

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 180,000 0%
180,001 – 250,000 3.5%
250,001 – 400,000 5%
400,001 – 750,000 7.5%
750,001 – 1,500,000 10%
1,500,000 and above 12%

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

Residential rates may be increased by 4% where further residential properties costing over £40,000 or over are acquired.

Higher residential tax rates

Higher residential rates may apply when you already own one or more residential properties.

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 180,000 4%
180,001 – 250,000 7.5%
250,001 – 400,000 9%
400,001 – 750,000 11.5%
750,001 – 1,500,000 14%
1,500,000 and above 16%

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

LTT (Non-residential)

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 225,000 0%
225,001 – 250,000 1%
250,001 – 1,000,000 5%
Over 1,000,000 6%

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

Mileage Allowance Payments (MAPS) for Employees
  • MAPs represent the maximum tax free mileage allowances an employee can receive from their employer for using their own vehicle for business journeys.
  • An employer is allowed to pay an employee a certain amount of MAPs each year without having to report payments to HMRC.
  • If the employee receives less than the statutory rate, tax relief can be claimed on the difference.

MAP rates per business mile 2022/23 and 2021/22

Cars and vans Rate per mile
Up to 10,000 miles 45p
Over 10,000 miles 25p
Bicycles 20p
Motorcycles 24p
Minimum Wage
  • National Minimum Wage rates apply to employees up to the age of 22.
  • National Living Wage (NLW) rates apply to employees 23 and over.
  • The Apprentice rate applies to apprentices under 19, or 19 and over in the first year of apprenticeship.
  • Penalties apply to employers who fail to pay minimum wages.
Age NLW 21-22 18-20 16-17 Apprentice
From 1 April 2022 £9.50 £9.18 £6.83 £4.81 £4.81

 

  • National Minimum Wage rates apply to employees up to the age of 22.
  • National Living Wage (NLW) rates apply to employees 23 and over.
  • The Apprentice rate applies to apprentices under 19, or 19 and over in the first year of apprenticeship.
  • Penalties apply to employers who fail to pay minimum wages.
Age NLW 21-22 18-20 16-17 Apprentice
From 1 April 2021 £8.91 £8.36 £6.56 £4.62 £4.30
National Insurance Contributions (NICS) - Rates and Allowances
  • Employees start paying Class 1 NIC from age 16 (if sufficient earnings).
  • Employers pay Class 1 NIC in accordance with the table below.
  • Employer NIC for employees under the age of 21 and apprentices under the age of 25 is reduced from the normal rate of 15.05% to 0% up to the Upper Secondary Threshold of £967 per week. Also applies to veterans in the first 12 months of employment.
  • Employees’ Class 1 NIC stop when they reach their State Pension age. The employer’s contribution continues.

Employees – Class 1 – 2022/23

Earnings per week %
Up to £190* Nil
£190.01 – £967 13.25
Over £967 3.25

* £242 from 6 July 2022

Entitlement to state pension and other contribution-based benefits is retained for earnings between £123 and £190* per week.

Employers – Class 1 – 2022/23

Earnings per week %
Up to £175 Nil
Over £175 15.05

Other National Insurance payable by employers

Class 1A – 15.05% on broadly all taxable benefits provided to employees and on certain taxable termination and sporting testimonial payments in excess of £30,000

Class 1B – 15.05% on taxable PAYE Settlement Agreements

Self-employed – Class 2 and 4

  • A self-employed person starts paying Class 2 and Class 4 NIC from 16 or over (if sufficient profits)
  • Class 2 NIC stop when a person reaches State Pension age
  • Class 4 NIC stop from the start of the tax year after the one in which the person reaches State Pension age.

Self-employed – Class 2 – 2022/23

Flat rate per week £3.15
Small Profits Threshold £6,725 per year
Lower Profits Limit £11,908

For 2022/23 the point at which the self-employed person starts to pay Class 2 NICs will increase to £11,908. This means those with profits between the Small Profits Threshold and the Lower Profits Limit will not pay Class 2 NICs, but will still be able to access entitlement to contributory benefits.  A self-employed person with profits below the Small Profits Threshold might decide to carry on paying Class 2 voluntarily to accrue entitlement to the State Pension and other benefits.

Class 4 – 2022/23

Annual profits %
Up to £11,908 Nil
£11,908.01 – £50,270 10.25
Over £50,270 3.25

Class 3

  • A person needs 35 years (30 years if State Pension age is before 6 April 2016) of NIC to get a full State Pension.
  • Class 3 voluntary contributions can be paid to fill or avoid gaps in a NI record.

Class 3 – 2022/23

Flat rate per week £15.85

 

 

  • Employees start paying Class 1 NIC from age 16 (if sufficient earnings).
  • Employers pay Class 1 NIC in accordance with the table below.
  • Employer NIC for employees under the age of 21 and apprentices under the age of 25 is reduced from the normal rate of 13.8% to 0% up to the Upper Secondary Threshold of £967 per week. Also applies to veterans in the first 12 months of employment.
  • Employees’ Class 1 NIC stop when they reach their State Pension age . The employer’s contribution continues.

Employees – Class 1 – 2021/22

Earnings per week %
Up to £184 Nil
£184.01 – £967 12
Over £967 2

Entitlement to state pension and other contribution-based benefits is retained for earnings between £120 and £184 per week.

Employers – Class 1 – 2021/22

Earnings per week %
Up to £170 Nil
Over £170 13.8

Other National Insurance payable by employers

Class 1A – 13.8% on broadly all taxable benefits provided to employees and on certain taxable termination and sporting testimonial payments in excess of £30,000

Class 1B – 13.8% on taxable PAYE Settlement Agreements

Self-employed – Class 2 and 4

  • A self-employed person starts paying Class 2 and Class 4 NIC from 16 or over (if sufficient profits)
  • Class 2 NIC stop when a person reaches State Pension age
  • Class 4 NIC stop from the start of the tax year after the one in which the person reaches State Pension age.

Self-employed – Class 2 – 2021/22

Flat rate per week £3.05
Small Profits Threshold £6,515 per year

No Class 2 is due if the amount of trading profits assessable to income tax and Class 4 NIC is below this figure. However, a person might decide to carry on paying Class 2 voluntarily to accrue entitlement to the State Pension and other benefits.  

Class 4 – 2021/22

Annual profits %
Up to £9,568 Nil
£9,568.01 – £50,270 9
Over £50,270 2

Class 3

  • A person needs 35 years (30 years if State Pension age is before 6 April 2016) of NIC to get a full State Pension.
  • Class 3 voluntary contributions can be paid to fill or avoid gaps in a NI record.

Class 3 – 2021/22

Flat rate per week £15.40

Pensions Automatic Enrolment
Auto enrolment places duties on employers to automatically enrol ‘workers’ into a work based pension scheme. Employers are required to automatically enrol all ‘eligible jobholders’ into a qualifying pension scheme and pay pension contributions on their behalf.
Employer minimum contribution Total minimum contribution
3% 8%

Where the employer does not make the total minimum contribution the employee is obliged to pay the balance.

  2022/23
Automatic enrolment earnings trigger £10,000
Qualifying earnings band – lower limit £6,240
Qualifying earnings band – upper limit £50,270

 

Auto enrolment places duties on employers to automatically enrol ‘workers’ into a work based pension scheme. Employers are required to automatically enrol all ‘eligible jobholders’ into a qualifying pension scheme and pay pension contributions on their behalf.
Employer minimum contribution Total minimum contribution
3% 8%

Where the employer does not make the total minimum contribution the employee is obliged to pay the balance.

  2021/22
Automatic enrolment earnings trigger £10,000
Qualifying earnings band – lower limit £6,240
Qualifying earnings band – upper limit £50,270
Pensions - Tax Relief on Pensions Contribution
  • Tax relief available for personal contributions is the higher of £3,600 (gross) or 100% of relevant earnings.
  • Any contributions in excess of £40,000, whether personal or by the employer, may be subject to income tax on the individual.
  • The limit may be reduced to £4,000 once money purchase pensions are accessed.
  • Where the £40,000 limit is not fully used it may be possible to carry the unused amount forward for three years.
  • The annual allowance is tapered for those with adjusted income over £240,000. For every £2 of income over £240,000 an individual’s annual allowance will be reduced by £1, down to a minimum of £4,000.
  • Employers will obtain tax relief on employer contributions if they are paid and made ‘wholly and exclusively’ for the purposes of the business. The tax relief for large contributions may be spread over several years.
  • Tax relief available for personal contributions is the higher of £3,600 (gross) or 100% of relevant earnings.
  • Any contributions in excess of £40,000, whether personal or by the employer, may be subject to income tax on the individual.
  • The limit may be reduced to £4,000 once money purchase pensions are accessed.
  • Where the £40,000 limit is not fully used it may be possible to carry the unused amount forward for three years.
  • The annual allowance is tapered for those with adjusted income over £240,000. For every £2 of income over £240,000 an individual’s annual allowance will be reduced by £1, down to a minimum of £4,000.
  • Employers will obtain tax relief on employer contributions if they are paid and made ‘wholly and exclusively’ for the purposes of the business. The tax relief for large contributions may be spread over several years.
Property Allowance
  • A property allowance is available to individuals.
  • The property allowance will not apply to partnership income or to income on which rent a room relief is given.
Income up to £1,000 Property income assessable NIL
Income over £1,000 Election to deduct £1,000 rather than the actual expenses
 
Self Assessments - Key Dates
31 January 2022 – First payment on account due for 2021/22 tax year.

31 July 2022 – Second payment on account for 2021/22 tax year.

5 October 2022 – Deadline for notifying HMRC of new sources of income (including the Child Benefit charge) if no tax return has been issued for 2021/22 tax year.

31 October 2022 – Deadline for submission of 2021/22 non-electronic returns.

30 December 2022 – Deadline for submission of 2021/22 electronic tax returns if ‘coding out’ of eligible underpayment is required.

31 January 2023 – Deadline for filing electronic tax returns for 2021/22. Balancing payment due for 2021/22 tax year. First payment on account due for 2022/23 tax year.

31 January 2021 – First payment on account due for 2020/21 tax year.

31 July 2021 – Second payment on account for 2020/21 tax year.

5 October 2021 – Deadline for notifying HMRC of new sources of income (including the Child Benefit charge) if no tax return has been issued for 2020/21 tax year.

31 October 2021 – Deadline for submission of 2020/21 non-electronic returns.

30 December 2021 – Deadline for submission of 2020/21 electronic tax returns if ‘coding out’ of eligible underpayment is required.

31 January 2022 – Deadline for filing electronic tax returns for 2020/21. Balancing payment due for 2020/21 tax year. First payment on account due for 2021/22 tax year.

Stamp Duty

When you buy shares, you usually pay a tax or duty of 0.5% on the transaction. If you buy shares electronically Stamp Duty Reserve Tax (SDRT) is payable. For shares purchased using a stock transfer form, you will pay Stamp Duty if the transaction is over £1,000.

Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT)
  • SDLT is payable on land and property transactions in England and Northern Ireland.
  • Property transactions in Scotland are subject to Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT).
  • Property transactions in Wales are subject to Land Transaction Tax (LTT).

Residential property

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 125,000 0%
125,001 – 250,000 2%
250,001 – 925,000 5%
925,001 – 1,500,000 10%
1,500,001 and above 12%

These rates may be increased by 3% where further residential properties, costing over £40,000, are acquired.

First-time Buyer relief

From 1 July 2021 First-time buyers may be eligible for first-time buyer relief on purchases of residential property up to £500,000. The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 300,000 0%
300,001 – 500,000 5%
for purchases over 500,000 normal rates apply

Non-residential SDLT rates

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 150,000 0%
150,001 – 250,000 2%
Over 250,000 5%

Payable on consideration which falls in each band.

  • SDLT is payable on land and property transactions in England and Northern Ireland.
  • Property transactions in Scotland are subject to Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT).
  • Property transactions in Wales are subject to Land Transaction Tax (LTT).

Residential property

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band. The following rates apply to 30 June 2021:

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 500,000 0%
500,001 – 925,000 5%
925,001 – 1,500,000 10%
1,500,001 and above 12%

The following rates apply from 1 July to 30 September 2021:

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 250,000 0%
250,001 – 925,000 5%
925,001 – 1,500,000 10%
1,500,001 and above 12%

The following rates apply from 1 October 2021:

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 125,000 0%
125,001 – 250,000 2%
250,001 – 925,000 5%
925,001 – 1,500,000 10%
1,500,001 and above 12%

These rates may be increased by 3% where further residential properties, costing over £40,000, are acquired.

First-time Buyer relief

From 1 July 2021 First-time buyers may be eligible for first-time buyer relief on purchases of residential property up to £500,000. The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 300,000 0%
300,001 – 500,000 5%
for purchases over 500,000 normal rates apply

Non-residential SDLT rates

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 150,000 0%
150,001 – 250,000 2%
Over 250,000 5%

Payable on consideration which falls in each band.

State Pensions
  • The basic State Pension is a regular payment from the government that an individual may be entitled to when they reach State Pension age.
  • The basic State Pension depends on the number of years an individual has paid National Insurance or has National Insurance credits, eg while unemployed or claiming certain benefits.
  • To receive the basic State Pension an individual must have paid or been credited with National Insurance contributions (NIC).
  • In 2016 the State Pension was reformed into a single-tier new State Pension. In order to benefit from the full amount the individual will need 35 years, rather than the previous 30 years of NIC or credits for the full amount, with pro-rating where 35 years is not achieved. You will usually need 10 qualifying years to get any State Pension. The amount an individual receives can be higher or lower depending on their National Insurance record. It will only be higher if you have over a certain amount of Additional State Pension.
  • Currently an individual may also be entitled to the Additional State Pension. How much an individual gets depends on the number of qualifying years of NIC, the amount of earnings and whether the individual has been contracted out of the scheme.
Weekly State Pension 2022/23  
Basic – single person £141.85
New State Pension £185.15

 

  • The basic State Pension is a regular payment from the government that an individual may be entitled to when they reach State Pension age .
  • The basic State Pension depends on the number of years an individual has paid National Insurance or has National Insurance credits, eg while unemployed or claiming certain benefits.
  • To receive the basic State Pension an individual must have paid or been credited with National Insurance contributions (NIC).
  • In 2016 the State Pension was reformed into a single-tier new State Pension. In order to benefit from the full amount the individual will need 35 years, rather than the previous 30 years of NIC or credits for the full amount, with pro-rating where 35 years is not achieved. You will usually need 10 qualifying years to get any State Pension. The amount an individual receives can be higher or lower depending on their National Insurance record. It will only be higher if you have over a certain amount of Additional State Pension.
  • Currently an individual may also be entitled to the Additional State Pension. How much an individual gets depends on the number of qualifying years of NIC, the amount of earnings and whether the individual has been contracted out of the scheme.
Weekly State Pension 2021/22  
Basic – single person £137.60
New State Pension £179.60
Tax reliefs for Individuals

Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS)

The Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS) provides tax relief for individuals prepared to invest in new and growing companies. Investors can obtain generous income tax and capital gains tax (CGT) breaks for their investment and companies can use the relief to attract additional investment to develop their business. Individuals are entitled to relief on investments in certain unquoted trading companies through EIS. A junior version of EIS the SEIS is also available.

Maximum investment per annum £1,000,000
Additional investment limit where investing in knowledge-intensive companies £1,000,000
Income tax relief 30%
CGT treatment on disposal if held for 3 years Exempt

Capital gains from the disposal of other assets may be deferred by making an EIS investment.

Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme (SEIS)

The Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme (SEIS) provides tax relief for individuals prepared to invest in new and growing companies. Investors can obtain generous income tax and capital gains tax (CGT) breaks for their investment and companies can use the relief to attract additional investment to develop their business. SEIS is a junior version of EIS.

Maximum investment per annum £100,000
Income tax relief 50%
CGT treatment on disposal if held for 3 years Exempt

Capital gains from the disposal of other assets may be exempt up to £50,000 per annum by making an SEIS investment.

Social Investment Relief (SIR)

Social Investment Relief (SIR) is designed to encourage private individuals to invest in social enterprises including charities. Individuals are entitled to relief on their investment:

Maximum investment per annum £1,000,000
Income tax relief 30%
CGT treatment on disposal if held for 3 years Exempt

Capital gains from the disposal of other assets may be deferred by making a SIR investment.

Venture Capital Trusts (VCTs)

Venture Capital Trusts (VCTs) are designed to encourage private individuals to invest in smaller high-risk unquoted trading companies. VCTs operate by indirect investment through a mediated fund. In effect they are very like the investment trusts that are obtainable on the stock exchange, albeit in a high-risk environment. Individuals are entitled to relief on investments in VCTs.

Maximum investment per annum £200,000
Income tax relief 30%
Dividend income Exempt
Capital gains treatment on disposal Exempt

All reliefs are subject to detailed conditions being met.

Trade Allowances
  • A Trade Allowance is available to individuals.
  • There is an equivalent rule for certain miscellaneous income. This will apply to the extent that the £1,000 trading allowance is not used against trading income.
  • The trade allowance is not available against partnership income.
Income up to £1,000 Profits assessable NIL
Income over £1,000 Election to deduct £1,000 allowance rather than the actual expenses
Van Benefits
  • Van benefit is chargeable if the van is available for an employee’s private use.
  • A fuel benefit may also be chargeable if an employee has the benefit of private fuel paid for in respect of a company van.
  • The charges do not apply to vans if a ‘restricted private use condition’ is met throughout the year.
  • From 6 April 2021 a 0% benefit charge may apply to vans which cannot emit CO2 when driven.
Van benefits 2022/23
Van benefit £3,600
Fuel benefit £688

 

  • Van benefit is chargeable if the van is available for an employee’s private use.
  • A fuel benefit may also be chargeable if an employee has the benefit of private fuel paid for in respect of a company van.
  • The charges do not apply to vans if a ‘ restricted private use condition ‘ is met throughout the year.
  • From 6 April 2021 a 0% benefit charge may apply to vans which cannot emit CO when driven.
Van benefits 2021/22
Van benefit £3,500
Fuel benefit £669
VAT
  • Registered businesses charge VAT on their sales. This is known as output VAT and the sales are referred to as outputs.
  • Similarly VAT is charged on most goods and services purchased by the business. This is known as input VAT.
  • There are three rates: standard which applies to most goods and services, reduced rate for some goods and services such as home energy and zero rate goods and services, for example, most food and children’s clothes.
  • Some supplies are exempt from VAT for example postage stamps, financial and insurance transactions.
  • A business is required to register for VAT if the value of taxable supplies exceeds the annual registration limit.
VAT – rates and limits  
Standard rate 20%
Reduced rate 5%*
Annual Registration Limit
– from 1.4.22 – 31.3.23
£85,000
Annual Deregistration Limit
– from 1.4.22 – 31.3.23
£83,000

 

  • Registered businesses charge VAT on their sales. This is known as output VAT and the sales are referred to as outputs.
  • Similarly VAT is charged on most goods and services purchased by the business. This is known as input VAT.
  • There are three rates: standard which applies to most goods and services, reduced rate for some goods and services such as home energy and zero rate goods and services, for example, most food and children’s clothes.
  • Some supplies are exempt from VAT for example postage stamps, financial and insurance transactions.
  • A business is required to register for VAT if the value of taxable supplies exceeds the annual registration limit.
  • The government has frozen the VAT registration and deregistration limits until 1 April 2022.
VAT – rates and limits  
Standard rate 20%
Reduced rate 5%*
Annual Registration Limit
– from 1.4.21 – 31.3.22
£85,000
Annual Deregistration Limit
– from 1.4.21 – 31.3.22
£83,000

* 12.5% for hospitality and tourism from 1 October 2021 to 31 March 2022

VAT Fuel Scale Charges
Businesses must use these new VAT fuel scale charges from the start of their next prescribed accounting period beginning on or after 1 May 2021.
CO2
band
Gross monthly
£
VAT
£
Net
£
120 or less 48 8.00 40.00
125 72 12.00 60.00
130 77 13.00 65.00
135 82 14.00 68.00
140 87 14.50 72.50
145 91 15.17 75.83
150 97 16.17 80.83
155 102 17.00 85.00
160 106 17.67 88.33
165 111 18.50 92.50
170 116 19.33 96.67
175 121 20.17 100.83
180 126 21.00 105.00
185 130 21.67 108.33
190 136 22.67 113.33
195 141 23.50 117.50
200 145 24.17 120.83
205 150 25.00 125.00
210 155 25.83 129.17
215 160 26.67 133.33
220 165 27.50 137.50
225 or more 169 28.17 140.83
CO 2
band
Gross 3 month period £ VAT
£
Net
£
120 or less 145 24.17 120.83
125 219 36.50 182.50
130 233 38.83 194.17
135 247 41.17 205.83
140 262 43.67 218.33
145 277 45.83 230.83
150 292 48.67 243.33
155 306 51.00 255.00
160 321 53.50 267.50
165 336 56.00 280.00
170 350 58.33 291.67
175 364 60.33 303.33
180 379 63.17 315.83
185 394 65.67 328.33
190 409 68.17 340.83
195 423 70.50 352.50
200 438 73.00 365.00
205 453 75.50 377.50
210 467 77.83 389.17
215 481 80.17 400.83
220 496 82.67 413.33
225 or more 511 85.17 425.83
CO 2
band
Annual gross
£
VAT
£
Net
£
120 or less 585 97.50 487.50
125 875 145.83 729.17
130 936 156.00 780.00
135 992 165.33 826.67
140 1,053 175.50 877.50
145 1,109 184.83 924.17
150 1,170 195.00 975.00
155 1,226 204.33 1,021.67
160 1,287 214.50 1,072.50
165 1,343 223.83 1,119.17
170 1,404 240.00 1,170.00
175 1,460 243.33 1,216.67
180 1,521 253.50 1,267.50
185 1,577 262.83 1,314.17
190 1,638 273.00 1,365.00
195 1,694 282.83 1,411.67
200 1,755 292.50 1,462.50
205 1,811 301.83 1,509.17
210 1,872 312.00 1,560.00
215 1,928 321.33 1,606.67
220 1,989 331.50 1,657.50
225 or more 2,045 340.83 1,704.17

Where the CO2 emission figure is not a multiple of five, the figure is rounded down to the next multiple of five to determine the level of the charge.

For a bi-fuel vehicle which has two CO2 emissions figures, the lower of the two figures should be used.

For cars which are too old to have a CO2 emissions figure, you should identify the CO2 band based on engine size. If its cylinder capacity is:

  • If its cylinder capacity is 1,400cc or less, use CO2 band 140
  • If its cylinder capacity exceeds 1,400cc but does not exceed 2,000cc, use CO2 band 175;
  • If its cylinder capacity exceeds 2,000cc, use CO2 band 225 or above.
Businesses must use these new VAT fuel scale charges from the start of their next prescribed accounting period beginning on or after 1 May 2020.
CO 2
band
Gross monthly
£
VAT
£
Net
£
120 or less 48 8.00 40.00
125 72 12.00 60.00
130 76 12.67 63.33
135 81 13.50 67.50
140 87 14.50 72.50
145 91 15.17 75.83
150 96 16.00 80.00
155 101 16.83 84.17
160 106 17.67 88.33
165 111 18.50 92.50
170 115 19.17 95.83
175 120 20.00 100.00
180 125 20.83 104.17
185 130 21.67 108.33
190 135 22.50 112.50
195 140 23.33 116.67
200 144 24.00 120.00
205 149 24.83 124.17
210 154 25.67 128.33
215 159 26.50 132.50
220 164 27.33 136.67
225 or more 168 28.00 140.00
CO 2
band
Gross 3 month period £ VAT
£
Net
£
120 or less 144 24.00 120.00
125 218 36.33 181.67
130 231 38.50 192.50
135 246 41.00 205.00
140 261 43.50 217.50
145 275 45.83 229.17
150 290 48.33 241.67
155 305 50.83 254.17
160 319 53.17 265.83
165 334 55.67 278.33
170 348 58.00 290.00
175 362 60.33 301.67
180 377 62.83 314.17
185 392 65.33 326.67
190 406 67.67 338.33
195 421 70.17 350.83
200 436 72.67 363.33
205 450 75.00 375.00
210 464 77.33 386.67
215 479 79.83 399.17
220 493 82.17 410.83
225 or more 508 84.67 423.33
CO 2
band
Annual gross
£
VAT
£
Net
£
120 or less 581 96.83 484.17
125 870 145.00 725.00
130 930 155.00 775.00
135 986 164.33 821.67
140 1,047 174.50 872.50
145 1,103 183.83 919.17
150 1,163 193.83 969.17
155 1,219 203.17 1,015.83
160 1,279 213.17 1,065.83
165 1,335 222.50 1,112.50
170 1,396 232.67 1,163.33
175 1,452 242.00 1,210.00
180 1,512 252.00 1,260.00
185 1,568 261.33 1,306.67
190 1,628 271.33 1,356.67
195 1,684 280.67 1,403.33
200 1,745 290.83 1,454.17
205 1,801 300.17 1,500.83
210 1,861 310.17 1,550.83
215 1,917 319.50 1,597.50
220 1,977 329.50 1,647.50
225 or more 2,033 338.83 1,694.17

Where the CO emission figure is not a multiple of five, the figure is rounded down to the next multiple of five to determine the level of the charge.

For a bi-fuel vehicle which has two CO emissions figures, the lower of the two figures should be used.

For cars which are too old to have a CO emissions figure, you should identify the CO band based on engine size. If its cylinder capacity is:

  • If its cylinder capacity is 1,400cc or less, use CO band 140
  • If its cylinder capacity exceeds 1,400cc but does not exceed 2,000cc, use CO band 175;
  • If its cylinder capacity exceeds 2,000cc, use CO band 225 or above.
Vehicle Excise Duty (VED) - Passenger Cars
For vehicles first registered on or after 1 April 2017, the VED or ‘Road Tax’ rate for the first 12 months is based on CO2 emissions shown on the V5 (Registration Document).Subsequent years are charged at the standard rate. Cars with a list price of over £40,000 when new pay an additional rate of £355 per year on top of the standard rate, for five years.

New diesel vehicles that do not meet the Euro 6d emissions standard are charged a supplement on their First Year Rate to the effect of moving up by one VED band.

VED bands and rates for cars first registered on or after 1 April 2017

CO2 emissions (g/km) Standard rate First year rate
0 £0 £0
1-50 £165 £10
51-75 £165 £25
76-90 £165 £120
91-100 £165 £150
101-110 £165 £170
111-130 £165 £190
131-150 £165 £230
151-170 £165 £585
171-190 £165 £945
191-225 £165 £1,420
226-255 £165 £2,015
Over 255 £165 £2,365

VED bands and rates for cars registered on or after 1 March 2001 but before 1 April 2017

VED band CO emissions (g/km) Standard rate
A Up to 100 £0
B 101-110 £20
C 111-120 £30
D 121-130 £135
E 131-140 £165
F 141-150 £180
G 151-165 £220
H 166-175 £265
I 176-185 £290
J 186-200 £330
K 201-225* £360
L 226-255 £615
M Over 255 £630

*Including cars emitting over 225g/km registered before 23 March 2006.

 

For vehicles first registered on or after 1 April 2017, the VED or ‘Road Tax’ rate for the first 12 months is based on CO emissions shown on the V5 (Registration Document).Subsequent years are charged at the standard rate. Cars with a list price of over £40,000 when new pay an additional rate of £335 per year on top of the standard rate, for five years.

New diesel vehicles that do not meet the Euro 6d emissions standard are charged a supplement on their First Year Rate to the effect of moving up by one VED band.

VED bands and rates for cars first registered on or after 1 April 2017

CO emissions (g/km) Standard rate First year rate
0 £0 £0
1-50 £155 £10
51-75 £155 £25
76-90 £155 £115
91-100 £155 £140
101-110 £155 £160
111-130 £155 £180
131-150 £155 £220
151-170 £155 £555
171-190 £155 £895
191-225 £155 £1,345
226-255 £155 £1,910
Over 255 £155 £2,245

VED bands and rates for cars registered on or after 1 March 2001 but before 1 April 2017

VED band CO emissions (g/km) Standard rate
A Up to 100 £0
B 101-110 £20
C 111-120 £30
D 121-130 £130
E 131-140 £155
F 141-150 £170
G 151-165 £210
H 166-175 £250
I 176-185 £275
J 186-200 £315
K 201-225* £340
L 226-255 £585
M Over 255 £600

*Including cars emitting over 225g/km registered before 23 March 2006.

Disclaimer

This article is published for the information of clients. It provides only an overview of the regulations in force at the date of publication and no action should be taken without consulting the detailed legislation or seeking professional advice. Therefore no responsibility for loss occasioned by any person acting or refraining from action as a result of the material contained in this publication can be accepted by the authors or the firm.

Hawsons makes history after 165 years in business

Hawsons Chartered Accountants is 165 years old

Hawsons Chartered Accountants was founded in the city of Sheffield in 1854 – more than 25 years before the creation of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales – by Alfred Allott and John Hewett.

Hawsons remains one of the longest-standing independent firms of chartered accountants in the UK. One of the main reasons why clients choose Hawsons is not just because of our experience and expertise in accountancy but the high-quality advice and service our team delivers.

Our mission is to provide our clients with service of the highest quality and value in a professional, friendly, and responsive manner, to assist them to develop their business, to develop the maximum potential of our people and thereby be the leading independent practice in the area.

Our unrivalled history demonstrates that through many periods of change, we have evolved as a business to ensure we continue to remain relevant to our clients, providing them with the quality and breadth of service they need.  Clients understand that irrespective of how small they are when they become a client or how large they will grow, Hawsons will always be there for them.

Our belief in long-term client relationships is why we offer all prospective clients a free initial meeting so we can really get to know you and your business and you can get to know us.

Chris Hill, Senior Partner at Hawsons, said on the firm’s development: “We’re proud of our extensive history and the success we’ve achieved since we were founded in Sheffield 165 years ago. To have reached such an age and still be going strong is a great feat. Despite our company’s growth and expansion into other areas across the UK, we’ve stayed true to our philosophy that no matter what size or sector, every business we work with will always receive the same high standard of advice and service from our team.”

If you are looking for an expert accountant book your free initial meeting with us here.

If you would like to find out more about us visit our website here.

 

Free initial meeting

The Election Result: What are the tax implications?

The Election Result: What are the tax implications?

Tax implications of the Election Result

The general election has ended and the Conservatives have secured a large majority winning 365 seats.

What does this mean for tax?  How will the election result affect you or your business?

Tax expert Craig Walker provides a recap of the key pledges made by the Conservatives during the election process:

Income Tax

 National Insurance

  • No increases to the rates of national insurance.
  • To increase the threshold at which national insurance starts to be payable to £9,500 from April 2020, with the aim of increasing this threshold to £12,500.
  • To increase the Employment Allowance from £3,000 to £4,000, to give small businesses further relief from national insurance.
  • To offer a one-year national insurance holiday for firms hiring ex-service personnel.

 Corporation Tax

 VAT

  • No increases to the rates of VAT.
  • To abolish VAT on sanitary products.

 Inheritance Tax

  • No significant changes proposed for IHT.

 Capital Gains Tax

 Property

  • A 3% Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT) surcharge for non-UK residents buying UK residential property, to be paid in addition to all other SDLT surcharges.
  • To increase the rate of Structures and Buildings Allowance to 3%.

 Business rates

  • To review the business rates system with a view to reducing the burden. To reduce the rates for retail businesses and extend the discounts to music venues, small cinemas and pubs.

 Tax compliance

  • To introduce tougher new anti-tax avoidance and evasion legislation.
  • To review the support offered to the self-employed.

Summary

The prime minister’s Brexit deal now looks likely to be pushed through Parliament by the end of January.  The economic consequences of Brexit are likely to give the Chancellor much to think about and significantly influence UK tax policy.

We can expect a Budget in February 2020 and it will be interesting to see to what extent the Conservatives’ tax proposals are implemented.  We should remember that politicians do not always follow manifesto pledges (and have even been known to borrow ideas from the opposition!)

We will keep you updated as tax policy unfolds.

For advice on how the election result could affect your tax position, please get in touch with your usual Hawsons contact.

More from our tax experts

You can find all of our latest tax articles and tax resources here.

If you are looking for advice in a particular area, please get in touch with your usual Hawsons contact.

Alternatively, we offer all new clients a free initial meeting to have a discussion about their own personal circumstances – find out more or book your free initial meeting here. We have offices in Sheffield, Doncaster and Northampton.

Free initial meeting

Craig Walker

Tax Director, Sheffield

0114 266 7141
Tax Rates 2019/2020

Tax Rates 2019/2020

Tax Rates 2019/20

We have summarised the key rates and allowances which are fundamental to our business and personal lives. We are sure that you will find them a useful point of reference and have set out below a few examples of how they can be used.

Personal tax rates

As the UK tax system becomes more devolved, it is important to keep abreast of the changes taking place in the Scottish and Welsh income tax rates and bands. We have summarised the relevant information together with the rates and allowances which apply to investment income.

Buying property

If you buy property then property taxes payable are different depending where the property is in the United Kingdom. Stamp Duty Land Tax is payable on property in England and Northern Ireland, whilst Land and Buildings Transaction Tax is payable on property in Scotland and Land Transaction Tax on property in Wales. Our tax rates highlight the main rates so that you can consider the potential cost of buying property.

Asset sales

If you sell an asset such as land, capital gains tax may be due. Our tax rates highlight the main rates and reliefs so that you can consider the tax bill that may arise.

Rates for businesses

If you run a business, obtaining the right allowances on equipment that your business buys can affect the tax that your business has to pay each year. The Annual Investment Allowance has increased from 1 January 2019 to £1,000,000 per annum. We have summarised the main allowances that are available.

Rates for employees

There are increases in the percentage charges for company car benefits again this year. Our guide explains how these are computed to help ensure that you are paying the correct amount of tax.

There are increases in the percentage charges for company car benefits again this year. Our guide explains how these are computed to help ensure that you are paying the correct amount of tax.

Rates that affect us all

Long term planning for a comfortable retirement can never start too early. Our tax rates explain how much can be contributed to an approved pension scheme each year tax efficiently.

Our tax rates contain the main inheritance tax rates and exemptions but early planning can mitigate these tremendously.


These rates are intended for use as a quick point of reference. Should you require any further information, have a simple question or require detailed advice we are only a phone call awa

 

Capital allowances - plant and machinery
  • The cost of purchasing capital equipment in a business is not a revenue tax deductible expense. However, tax relief is available on certain capital expenditure in the form of capital allowances.
  • Plant and machinery allowances may be available on items such as machines, equipment, furniture, certain fixtures in a building (‘integral features’), computers, cars, vans and similar equipment used in a business.
  • There are special rules for cars and certain ‘environmentally friendly’ equipment.
  • Plant and machinery allowances may be available to owners of commercial property which is let out to a business.
  • The Annual Investment Allowance (AIA) gives a 100% write-off on most types of plant and machinery (but not cars) up to an annual limit.
  • Writing down allowances (WDA) are given for expenditure for which AIA is not, or cannot be, claimed.
  • Structures and Buildings Allowance is introduced from 29 October 2018 at a rate of 2% on a straight line basis.

AIA

  • Special rules apply to accounting periods straddling the dates shown in the tables below.
  • The AIA may need to be shared between certain businesses under common ownership.

AIA limits – companies

Expenditure incurred:

Annual limit

  £
From 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2018 200,000
From 1 January 2019 1,000,000

AIA limits – sole traders and partnerships

Expenditure incurred:

Annual limit

  £
From 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2018 200,000
From 1 January 2019 1,000,000

Other plant and machinery allowances

  • Expenditure upon which AIA is not given/claimed will obtain relief through the ‘main rate pool’ or the ‘special rate pool’ rather than each item being dealt with separately.
  • The annual rate of WDA is 18% in the ‘main rate pool’ and 6% in the ‘special rate pool’. The 8% WDA is reduced to 6% from April 2019. Special rules apply to accounting periods straddling this date.
  • A 100% first year allowance (FYA) may be available on certain energy efficient plant and cars.

Cars

  • For expenditure incurred on cars, costs are generally allocated to one of the two plant and machinery pools.
  • AIA is not available on any car but a 100% first year allowance may be available on certain cars. To qualify for first year allowance, the car must be purchased new.

Cars acquired from April 2018

Emissions (g/km)

Pool

Allowance

≤50 Main rate 100% FYA
≤ 110 Main rate 18% WDA
>110 Special rate 6% WDA
Capital gains tax (CGT)
  • CGT is payable by individuals, trustees and personal representatives (PRs). Companies pay corporation tax on their capital gains.
  • There are annual tax-free allowances (the ‘annual exempt amount’) for individuals, trustees and PRs. Companies do not have an annual exempt amount.
  • For individuals, net gains are added to total taxable income to determine the appropriate rate of tax. The standard rate applies only to the net gains which, when added to total taxable income, do not exceed the basic rate band.
  • Gains which qualify for Entrepreneurs’ Relief or Investors’ Relief are charged at 10% for the first £10m of qualifying gains.

Rates and annual exemption 2019/20

Individuals 2019/20
  £
Exemption 12,000
Standard rate 10%
Higher rate 20%

The higher rate applies to higher rate and additional rate taxpayers.

Additionally, higher rates of 18% and 28% may apply to the disposal of certain residential property.

Trusts 2019/20
  £
Exemption 6,000
Rate 20%
Car benefits
  • The car benefit is calculated by multiplying the car’s list price, when new, by a percentage linked to the car’s CO2 emissions.
  • For diesel cars generally add a 4% supplement (unless the car is registered on or after 1 September 2017 and meets the Euro 6d emissions standard). The overall maximum percentage is capped at 37%.
  • The list price includes accessories.
  • The list price is reduced for capital contributions made by the employee up to £5,000.
  • Special rules may apply to cars provided for disabled employees.
  • For cars registered before 1 January 1998 and cars with no agreed CO2 emissions the charge is based on engine size.
CO2 emissions (g/km)
(round down to nearest 5g/km for values above 95)
% of car’s list price taxed
0-50 16
51 up to 75 19
76 up to 94 22
95 23
100 24
105 25
110 26
115 27
120 28
125 29
130 30
135 31
140 32
145 33
150 34
155 35
160 36
165 and above 37
Car fuel benefit
  • Car fuel benefit applies if an employee has the benefit of private fuel for a company car.
  • The benefit is calculated by applying the percentage used to calculate the car benefit by a ‘fuel charge multiplier’.
  • The charge is proportionately reduced if provision of private fuel ceases part way through the year. The fuel benefit is reduced to nil only if the employee pays for all private fuel.
Car fuel benefit 2019/20  
Fuel charge multiplier £24,100
Cars - advisory fuel rates for company cars
  • Advisory rates only apply where employers reimburse employees for business travel in a company car or require employees to repay the cost of fuel used for private travel in a company car.
  • If the rate paid per mile of business travel is no higher than the advisory rate for the particular engine size and fuel type of the car, HMRC will accept that there is no taxable profit and no Class 1 NIC liability.

The advisory fuel rates for journeys undertaken on or after 1 March 2019 are:

Engine size Petrol
1400cc or less 11p
1401cc – 2000cc 14p
Over 2000cc 21p
Engine size Diesel
1600cc or less 10p
1601cc – 2000cc 11p
Over 2000cc 13p
Engine size LPG
1400cc or less 7p
1401cc – 2000cc 8p
Over 2000cc 13p

Hybrid cars are treated as either petrol or diesel cars for this purpose.

Child Benefit
Child Benefit is receivable by a person responsible for each child until they reach 16, or 19 if they stay in education or training.If the person (or their spouse or partner) has ‘adjusted net income’ above £50,000 the person with the highest income has to pay some of the Child Benefit as a tax charge.

 

Where adjusted net income is more than £60,000 a year, the tax charge equals the Child Benefit received.

Rates – 2019/20 £ per week
Eldest/Only Child £20.70
Other Children £13.70
 
Corporation tax rates
  • Corporation tax rates are set for each Financial Year. A Financial Year runs from 1 April to the following 31 March.
  • If the accounting period of a company straddles the 31 March, the profits are apportioned on a time basis to each Financial Year.
  • The Northern Ireland Executive has committed to setting the rate of corporation tax at 12.5% when the Northern Ireland Executive demonstrates its finances are on a sustainable footing.
Year to 31.3.20 Rate %
All profits 19
Employee's Statutory Payments

Statutory pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer if an employee is not at work for a variety of reasons.
  • There are detailed conditions for an employee to qualify for any of these statutory payments.
  • Employees are only eligible for a statutory payment if they have sufficient average weekly earnings of at least the lower earnings limit.

Statutory Sick Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer if an employee is too ill to work.
  • SSP is generally payable for a period up to 28 weeks.

Statutory Maternity Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer when an employee takes time off to have a baby.
  • SMP is payable for a period up to 39 weeks.

Statutory Paternity Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer when an employee takes time off during their partner’s Statutory Maternity Pay period.
  • Payment is for a period of either one or two complete weeks.

Shared Parental Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer when an employee takes time off following the curtailment of the period of SMP by the mother.
  • Payment is for up to a maximum of 37 weeks and is dependent on the mother’s unused SMP period.

Statutory Adoption Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer when an employee takes time off when they adopt a child.
  • Payment is for a period up to 39 weeks.
2019/20 Statutory pay rates –
average weekly earnings £118 or over
 
Statutory Sick Pay £94.25
Statutory Maternity Pay  
First six weeks 90% of weekly earnings
Next 33 weeks £148.68
Statutory Paternity Pay – 2 weeks £148.68
Statutory Adoption Pay – 39 weeks  
First six weeks 90% of weekly earnings
Next 33 weeks £148.68
Shared Parental Pay £148.68

With the exception of Statutory Sick Pay, statutory payments may
be payable at 90% average weekly earnings throughout the payment period
in certain circumstances. This applies where 90% weekly earnings
are less than the standard rate of £148.68.

Income tax allowance

A personal allowance gives an individual an annual amount of income free from income tax.

Income above the personal allowances is subject to income tax.

The personal allowance will be reduced if an individual’s ‘adjusted net income’ is above £100,000. The allowance is reduced by £1 for every £2 of income above £100,000.

An individual born before 6 April 1935 may be entitled to a married couple’s allowance but this is reduced if ‘adjusted net income’ is above the married couple’s allowance income limit (see table below).

Marriage allowance – 10% of the personal allowance may be transferable between certain spouses where neither pays tax above the basic rate. The Marriage allowance is not available to couples entitled to the Married Couple’s allowance.

Income tax personal allowances £
Personal Allowance 12,500
Marriage Allowance 1,250
Blind person’s allowance 2,450
Married couple’s allowance
Either partner born before 6 April 1935
 
– Maximum reduction in tax bill 891.50
– Minimum reduction in tax bill 345.00
Married couple’s allowance income limit
Reduce married couple’s allowance by £1 for every £2 of ‘adjusted net income’ above this limit
29,600
Income tax rates
  • Income tax applies to the amount of income after deduction of personal allowances.
  • Income is taxed in a specific order with savings and dividend income taxed last.
  • Dividend income and savings income falling within the dividend and savings allowances still form part of total income of an individual.
  • The starting rate band is only applicable to savings income. The 0% rate is not available if the taxable amount of non-savings income exceeds the starting rate band.
  • The Scottish Parliament set the rates of income tax and the limits at which these rates apply for Scottish residents on non-savings and non-dividend income.

Income tax rates 2019/20

Band of taxable income Rate Rate if dividends
£   % %
0 – 5,000 Starting rate for savings 0 N/A
0 – 37,500 Basic rate 20 7.5
37,501 – 150,000 Higher rate 40 32.5
Over 150,000 Additional rate 45 38.1
Special rates for savings and dividend income falling into above bands of taxable income
Savings Allowance
Basic rate taxpayers 1,000 0  
Higher rate taxpayers 500 0  
Additional rate taxpayers Nil N/A  
Dividend Allowance
for all taxpayers 2,000   0
Income tax rates - across the UK
  • Income tax applies to the amount of income after deduction of personal allowances.
  • Income is taxed in a specific order with savings and dividend income taxed last.
  • Dividend income and savings income falling within the dividend and savings allowances still form part of total income of an individual.
  • The starting rate band is only applicable to savings income. The 0% rate is not available if the taxable amount of non-savings income exceeds the starting rate band.
  • The Scottish Parliament set the rates of income tax and the limits at which these rates apply for Scottish residents on non-savings and non-dividend income.
  • Income tax is devolved to Wales from 6 April 2019 on non-savings and non-dividend income.

Income tax rates 2019/20

Band of taxable income Rate Rate if dividends
£   % %
0 – 5,000 Starting rate for savings 0 N/A
0 – 37,500 Basic rate 20 7.5
37,501 – 150,000 Higher rate 40 32.5
Over 150,000 Additional rate 45 38.1
Special rates for savings and dividend income falling into above bands of taxable income
Savings Allowance
Basic rate taxpayers 1,000 0  
Higher rate taxpayers 500 0  
Additional rate taxpayers Nil N/A  
Dividend Allowance
for all taxpayers 2,000   0
Income tax rates - Scotland
  • Scottish resident taxpayers are liable on non-savings and non-dividend income as set out below.
  • Savings income and dividend income are taxed using UK tax rates and bands.
Band of taxable income Rate
£   %
0 – 2,049 Starter rate 19
2,050 – 12,444 Basic rate 20
12,445 – 30,930 Intermediate rate 21
30,931 – 150,000 Higher rate 41
Over 150,000 Top rate 46
Income tax rates - Wales
  • Income tax is devolved to Wales from 6 April 2019.
  • Welsh resident taxpayers continue to pay the same overall income tax rates using the UK rates and bands.
  • The total rate of income tax = UK income tax + Welsh rate of income tax
  • Savings income and dividend income are taxed using UK tax rates and bands.
Band of taxable income UK Rate Welsh Rate Total Rate
£   % % %
0 – 37,500 Basic rate 10 10 20
37,501 – 150,000 Higher rate 30 10 40
Over 150,000 Additional rate 35 10 45
Individual Savings Account (ISA)

The income from ISA investments is exempt from income tax. Any capital gains made on investments held in an ISA are exempt from capital gains tax.

Savers are able to subscribe any amounts into a cash ISA, a stocks and shares ISA or an innovative finance ISA subject to not exceeding the overall annual investment limit.

Investors may transfer their investments from one kind of ISA to another.

A Help to Buy ISA provides a tax free savings account for first time buyers wishing to save for a home. The scheme provides a government bonus to each person who has saved into a Help to Buy ISA at the point they use their savings to purchase their first home. For every £200 a first time buyer saves, the government will provide a £50 bonus up to a maximum bonus of £3,000 on £12,000 of savings. The bonus will be paid in the form of a voucher when the first home is purchased. Conditions apply to the account holder and to the property purchased.

The Lifetime ISA is available for those aged between 18 and 40. Save up to £4,000 each year up until the age of 50, and receive a government bonus of 25% (a bonus of up to £1,000 a year). Savers can use some or all of the money to buy their first home, or keep it until they are aged 60 when the account can be accessed tax free. Conditions apply to the account holder and property purchased.  Penalties apply if funds are withdrawn in other circumstances.

ISA limits 2019/20  
Overall annual investment limit £20,000
Junior ISA annual investment limit £4,368
Help to Buy ISA monthly subscription limit (initial deposit limit £1,200) £200
Lifetime ISA annual investment limit £4,000
Inheritance tax (IHT)
  • IHT may be payable when an individual’s estate is worth more than the IHT nil rate band when they die.
  • Lifetime and death transfers between UK domiciled spouses are exempt from IHT.
  • For 2019/20, a further nil rate band of £150,000 (2018/19 – £125,000) may be available in relation to current or former residences.
  • The IHT threshold available on death may be increased for surviving spouses as there may have been a nil rate band not used, or not fully used, on the previous death.
  • There are reliefs for some business and farming assets which reduce their value for IHT purposes.
  • IHT may also be payable on gifts made in an individual’s lifetime but within seven years of death.
  • Some lifetime gifts are exempt.
  • Transfers of assets into trust made in an individual’s lifetime may be subject to an immediate charge but at lifetime rates.
  • There are also charges on some trusts.

IHT rates and nil rate band 2019/20 and 2018/19

IHT nil rate £325,000
Lifetime rate 20%
Death rate 40%
Death rate if sufficient charitable legacies made 36%

IHT reliefs for lifetime gifts

Annual exemption £3,000
Small gifts £250
Marriage  
– parent £5,000
– grandparent £2,500
– bride/groom £2,500
– other £1,000

IHT – reduced charge on gifts within seven years of death

Years before death % of death charge
0-3 100
3-4 80
4-5 60
5-6 40
6-7 20
Land and Buildings Transaction Tax

Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT) is payable on land and property transactions in Scotland.

LBTT (Residential property)

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 145,000 0%
145,001 – 250,000 2%
250,001 – 325,000 5%
325,001 – 750,000 10%
750,001 and above 12%

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

Residential rates may be increased by 4% (3% prior to 25 January 2019)  where further residential properties, costing over £40,000, are acquired.

First-time Buyer relief raises the zero rate tax threshold for first-time buyers from £145,000 to £175,000.

LBTT (Non-residential)

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 150,000 0%
150,001 – 250,000 1%
Over 250,000 5%

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band. Different rates and bands applied prior to 25 January 2019.

Land Transaction Tax

Land Transaction Tax (LTT) is payable on land and property transactions in Wales.

LTT (Residential property)

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 180,000 0%
180,001 – 250,000 3.5%
250,001 – 400,000 5%
400,001 – 750,000 7.5%
750,001 – 1,500,000 10%
1,500,000 and above 12%

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band. Residential rates may be increased by 3% where further residential properties, costing over £40,000, are acquired.

LTT (Non-residential)

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 150,000 0%
150,001 – 250,000 1%
250,001 – 1,000,000 5%
Over 1,000,000 6%

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

Mileage Allowance Payments (MAPs) for employees
  • MAPs represent the maximum tax free mileage allowances an employee can receive from their employer for using their own vehicle for business journeys.
  • An employer is allowed to pay an employee a certain amount of MAPs each year without having to report payments to HMRC.
  • If the employee receives less than the statutory rate, tax relief can be claimed on the difference.

MAP rates per business mile 2019/20 and 2018/19

Cars and vans Rate per mile
Up to 10,000 miles 45p
Over 10,000 miles 25p
Bicycles 20p
Motorcycles 24p
Minimum Wage
  • National Minimum Wage rates apply to employees up to the age of 24.
  • National Living Wage rates apply to employees 25 and over.
  • The Apprentice rate applies to apprentices under 19, or 19 and over in the first year of apprenticeship.
  • Penalties apply to employers who fail to pay minimum wages.
Age 25+ 21-24 18-20 16-17 Apprentice
From 1 April 2019 £8.21 £7.70 £6.15 £4.35 £3.90
National Insurance contributions (NIC) - rates and allowances
  • Employees start paying Class 1 NIC from age 16 (if sufficient earnings).
  • Employers pay Class 1 NIC in accordance with the table below.
  • Employer NIC for employees under the age of 21 and apprentices under the age of 25 is reduced from the normal rate of 13.8% to 0% up to the Upper Secondary Threshold.
  • Employees’ Class 1 NIC stop when they reach their State Pension age. The employer’s contribution continues.

Employees – Class 1 – 2019/20

Earnings per week %
Up to £166 Nil
£166.01 – £962 12
Over £962 2

Entitlement to state pension and other contribution-based benefits is retained for earnings between £118 and £166 per week.

Employers – Class 1 – 2019/20

Earnings per week %
Up to £166 Nil
Over £166 13.8
Upper Secondary Threshold (for under 21s and apprentices under 25)
Up to £962
0%

Other National Insurance payable by employers

Class 1A – 13.8% on broadly all taxable benefits provided to employees

Class 1B – 13.8% on PAYE Settlement Agreements

Self-employed – Class 2 and 4

  • A self-employed person starts paying Class 2 and Class 4 NIC from 16 or over (if sufficient profits)
  • Class 2 NIC stop when a person reaches State Pension age
  • Class 4 NIC stop from the start of the tax year after the one in which the person reaches State Pension age.

Self-employed – Class 2 – 2019/20

Flat rate per week £3.00
Small Profits Threshold £6,365 per year

No Class 2 is due if the amount of trading profits assessable to income tax and Class 4 NIC is below this figure. However, a person might decide to carry on paying Class 2 voluntarily to accrue entitlement to the State Pension and entitlement to other benefits.  

Class 4 – 2019/20

Annual profits %
Up to £8,632 Nil
£8,632.01 – £50,000 9
Over £50,000 2

Class 3

  • A person needs 35 years (30 years if State Pension age is before 6 April 2016) of NIC to get a full State Pension.
  • Class 3 voluntary contributions can be paid to fill or avoid gaps in a NI record.

Class 3 – 2019/20

Flat rate per week £15.00

Pensions Automatic Enrolment

Auto enrolment places duties on employers to automatically enrol ‘workers’ into a work based pension scheme. Employers are required to automatically enrol all ‘eligible jobholders’ into a qualifying pension scheme and pay pension contributions on their behalf.

Phasing in of contributions

  Employer minimum contribution Total minimum contribution
6 April 2018 to 5 April 2019 2% 5%
6 April 2019 onwards 3% 8%

Where the employer does not make the total minimum contribution the employee is obliged to pay the balance.

  2019/20
Automatic enrolment earnings trigger £10,000
Qualifying earnings band – lower limit £6,136
Qualifying earnings band – upper limit £50,000
Pensions - tax relief on pension contributions
  • Tax relief available for personal contributions is the higher of £3,600 (gross) or 100% of relevant earnings.
  • Any contributions in excess of £40,000, whether personal or by the employer, may be subject to income tax on the individual.
  • The limit may be reduced to £4,000 once money purchase pensions are accessed.
  • Where the £40,000 limit is not fully used it may be possible to carry the unused amount forward for three years.
  • The annual allowance is tapered for those with adjusted income over £150,000. For every £2 of income over £150,000 an individual’s annual allowance will be reduced by £1, down to a minimum of £10,000.
  • Employers will obtain tax relief on employer contributions if they are paid and made ‘wholly and exclusively’ for the purposes of the business. The tax relief for large contributions may be spread over several years.

 

Property allowance
  • A property allowance is available to individuals.
  • The property allowance will not apply to partnership income or to income on which rent a room relief is given.
Income up to £1,000 Property income assessable NIL
Income over £1,000 Election to deduct £1,000 rather than the actual expenses
Self assessment - key dates

31 January 2019 – First payment on account due for 2018/19 tax year.

31 July 2019 – Second payment on account for 2018/19 tax year.

5 October 2019 – Deadline for notifying HMRC of new sources of income (including the Child Benefit charge) if no tax return has been issued for 2018/19 tax year.

31 October 2019 – Deadline for submission of 2018/19 non-electronic returns.

30 December 2019 – Deadline for submission of 2018/19 electronic tax returns if ‘coding out’ of any underpayment is required.

31 January 2020 – Deadline for filing electronic tax returns for 2018/19. Balancing payment due for 2018/19 tax year. First payment on account due for 2019/20 tax year.

Stamp Duty

When you buy shares, you usually pay a tax or duty of 0.5% on the transaction. If you buy shares electronically Stamp Duty Reserve Tax (SDRT) is payable. For shares purchased using a stock transfer form, you will pay Stamp Duty if the transaction is over £1,000.

Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT)
  • SDLT is payable on land and property transactions in England and Northern Ireland.
  • Property transactions in Scotland are subject to Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT).
  • Property transactions in Wales are subject to Land Transaction Tax (LTT).

Residential property

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 125,000 0%
125,001 – 250,000 2%
250,001 – 925,000 5%
925,001 – 1,500,000 10%
1,500,001 and above 12%

These rates may be increased by 3% where further residential properties, costing over £40,000, are acquired.

First-time Buyer relief

First-time buyers may be eligible for first-time buyer relief on purchases of residential property up to £500,000. The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 300,000 0%
300,001 – 500,000 5%
for purchases over 500,000 normal rates apply

Non-residential SDLT rates

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 150,000 0%
150,001 – 250,000 2%
Over 250,000 5%

Payable on consideration which falls in each band.

State Pensions
  • The basic State Pension is a regular payment from the government that an individual may be entitled to when they reach State Pension age.
  • The basic State Pension depends on the number of years an individual has paid National Insurance or has National Insurance credits, eg while unemployed or claiming certain benefits.
  • To receive the basic State Pension an individual must have paid or been credited with National Insurance contributions (NIC).
  • In 2016 the State Pension was reformed into a single-tier new State Pension. In order to benefit from the full amount the individual will need 35 years, rather than the previous 30 years of NIC or credits for the full amount, with pro-rating where 35 years is not achieved. You will usually need 10 qualifying years to get any State Pension. The amount an individual receives can be higher or lower depending on their National Insurance record. It will only be higher if you have over a certain amount of Additional State Pension.
  • Currently an individual may also be entitled to the Additional State Pension. How much an individual gets depends on the number of qualifying years of NIC, the amount of earnings and whether the individual has been contracted out of the scheme.
Weekly State Pension 2019/20  
Basic – single person £129.20
New State Pension £168.60
Tax reliefs for individuals

Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS)

The Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS) provides tax relief for individuals prepared to invest in new and growing companies. Investors can obtain generous income tax and capital gains tax (CGT) breaks for their investment and companies can use the relief to attract additional investment to develop their business. Individuals are entitled to relief on investments in certain unquoted trading companies through EIS. A junior version of EIS the SEIS is also available.

Maximum investment per annum £1,000,000
Additional investment limit where investing in knowledge-intensive companies £1,000,000
Income tax relief 30%
CGT treatment on disposal if held for 3 years Exempt

Capital gains from the disposal of other assets may be deferred by making an EIS investment.

Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme (SEIS)

The Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme (SEIS) provides tax relief for individuals prepared to invest in new and growing companies. Investors can obtain generous income tax and capital gains tax (CGT) breaks for their investment and companies can use the relief to attract additional investment to develop their business. SEIS is a junior version of EIS.

Maximum investment per annum £100,000
Income tax relief 50%
CGT treatment on disposal if held for 3 years Exempt

An individual who makes a capital gain on another asset and uses the amount of the gain to make a SEIS investment will not pay tax on 50% of the gain (subject to certain conditions).

Social Investment Relief (SIR)

Social Investment Relief (SIR) is designed to encourage private individuals to invest in social enterprises including charities. Individuals are entitled to relief on their investment:

Maximum investment per annum £1,000,000
Income tax relief 30%
CGT treatment on disposal if held for 3 years Exempt

Capital gains from the disposal of other assets may be deferred by making a SIR investment.

(All reliefs are subject to detailed conditions being met.)

Venture Capital Trusts (VCTs)

Venture Capital Trusts (VCTs) are designed to encourage private individuals to invest in smaller high-risk unquoted trading companies. VCTs operate by indirect investment through a mediated fund. In effect they are very like the investment trusts that are obtainable on the stock exchange, albeit in a high-risk environment. Individuals are entitled to relief on investments in VCTs.

Maximum investment per annum £200,000
Income tax relief 30%
Dividend income Exempt
Capital gains treatment on disposal Exempt
Trade allowance

 

  • A Trade Allowance is available to individuals.
  • There is an equivalent rule for certain miscellaneous income. This will apply to the extent that the £1,000 trading allowance is not used against trading income.
  • The trade allowance is not available against partnership income.
Income up to £1,000 Profits assessable NIL
Income over £1,000 Election to deduct £1,000 allowance rather than the actual expenses

 

Van benefit
  • Van benefit is chargeable if the van is available for an employee’s private use.
  • A fuel benefit may also be chargeable if an employee has the benefit of private fuel paid for in respect of a company van.
  • The charges do not apply to vans if a ‘restricted private use condition’ is met throughout the year.
  • A reduced benefit charge may apply to vans which cannot emit CO2 when driven.
Van benefits 2019/20
Van benefit £3,430
Fuel benefit £655
VAT
  • Registered businesses charge VAT on their sales. This is known as output VAT and the sales are referred to as outputs.
  • Similarly VAT is charged on most goods and services purchased by the business. This is known as input VAT.
  • There are three rates: standard which applies to most goods and services, reduced rate for some goods and services such as home energy and zero rate goods and services, for example, most food and children’s clothes.
  • Some supplies are exempt from VAT for example postage stamps, financial and insurance transactions.
  • A business is required to register for VAT if the value of taxable supplies exceeds the annual registration limit.
  • The government has frozen the VAT registration and deregistration limits for two years from 1 April 2018.
VAT – rates and limits 2019/20  
Standard rate 20%
Reduced rate 5%
Annual Registration Limit
– from 1.4.19 – 31.3.20
£85,000
Annual Deregistration Limit
VAT fuel scale charges
Businesses must use these new VAT fuel scale charges from the start of their next prescribed accounting period beginning on or after 1 May 2018.

Rates will be updated once they are available.

CO2
band
Gross monthly
£
VAT
£
Net
£
120 or less 46 7.67 38.33
125 70 11.67 58.33
130 74 12.33 61.67
135 79 13.17 65.83
140 84 14.00 70.00
145 88 14.67 73.33
150 93 15.50 77.50
155 98 16.33 81.67
160 102 17.00 85.00
165 107 17.83 89.17
170 111 18.50 92.50
175 116 19.33 96.67
180 121 20.17 100.83
185 125 20.83 104.17
190 130 21.67 108.33
195 135 22.50 112.50
200 140 23.33 116.67
205 145 24.17 120.83
210 149 24.83 124.17
215 154 25.67 128.33
220 159 26.50 132.50
225 or more 163 27.17 135.83
CO 2
band
Gross 3 month period £ VAT
£
Net
£
120 or less 140 23.33 116.67
125 210 35.00 175.00
130 224 37.33 186.67
135 238 39.67 198.33
140 252 42.00 210.00
145 266 44.33 221.67
150 280 46.67 233.33
155 295 49.17 245.83
160 309 51.50 257.50
165 323 53.83 269.17
170 336 56.00 280.00
175 351 58.50 292.50
180 365 60.83 304.17
185 379 63.17 315.83
190 393 65.50 327.50
195 407 67.83 339.17
200 421 70.17 350.83
205 436 72.67 363.33
210 449 74.83 374.17
215 463 77.17 385.83
220 477 79.50 397.50
225 or more 491 81.83 409.17
CO 2
band
Annual gross
£
VAT
£
Net
£
120 or less 562 93.67 468.33
125 842 140.33 701.67
130 900 150.00 750.00
135 954 159.00 795.00
140 1,013 168.83 844.17
145 1,067 177.83 889.17
150 1,125 187.50 937.50
155 1,179 196.50 982.50
160 1,238 206.33 1,031.67
165 1,292 215.33 1,076.67
170 1,350 225.00 1,125.00
175 1,404 234.00 1,170.00
180 1,463 243.83 1,219.17
185 1,517 252.83 1,264.17
190 1,575 262.50 1,312.50
195 1,630 271.67 1,358.33
200 1,688 281.33 1,406.67
205 1,742 290.33 1,451.67
210 1,801 300.17 1,500.83
215 1,855 309.17 1,545.83
220 1,913 318.83 1,594.17
225 or more 1,967 327.83 1,639.17

Where the CO2 emission figure is not a multiple of five, the figure is rounded down to the next multiple of five to determine the level of the charge.

For a bi-fuel vehicle which has two CO2 emissions figures, the lower of the two figures should be used.

For cars which are too old to have a CO2 emissions figure, you should identify the CO2 band based on engine size. If its cylinder capacity is:

  • If its cylinder capacity is 1,400cc or less, use CO2 band 140
  • If its cylinder capacity exceeds 1,400cc but does not exceed 2,000cc, use CO2 band 175;
  • If its cylinder capacity exceeds 2,000cc, use CO2 band 225 or above.
Vehicle Excise Duty (VED) - passenger cars

For vehicles first registered on or after 1 April 2017, the VED or ‘Road Tax’ rate for the first 12 months is based on CO2 emissions shown on the V5 (Registration Document).

Subsequent years are charged at the standard rate. Cars with a list price of over £40,000 when new pay an additional rate of £320 per year on top of the standard rate, for 5 years.

New diesel vehicles registered after 1 April 2018 that do not meet the Euro 6d emissions standard are charged a supplement on their First Year Rate to the effect of moving up by one VED band.

VED bands and rates for cars first registered on or after 1 April 2017

CO2 emissions (g/km) Standard rate First year rate
0 £0 £0
1-50 £145 £10
51-75 £145 £25
76-90 £145 £110
91-100 £145 £130
101-110 £145 £150
111-130 £145 £170
131-150 £145 £210
151-170 £145 £530
171-190 £145 £855
191-225 £145 £1280
226-255 £145 £1815
Over 255 £145 £2135

VED bands and rates for cars registered on or after 1 March 2001 but before 1 April 2017

VED band CO 2 emissions (g/km) Standard rate
A Up to 100 £0
B 101-110 £20
C 111-120 £30
D 121-130 £125
E 131-140 £145
F 141-150 £160
G 151-165 £200
H 166-175 £235
I 176-185 £260
J 186-200 £300
K 201-225* £325
L 226-255 £555
M Over 255 £570

*Including cars emitting over 225g/km registered before 23 March 2006.

Disclaimer

This article is published for the information of clients. It provides only an overview of the regulations in force at the date of publication and no action should be taken without consulting the detailed legislation or seeking professional advice. Therefore no responsibility for loss occasioned by any person acting or refraining from action as a result of the material contained in this publication can be accepted by the authors or the firm.

Making Tax Digital and VAT: are you ready?

Making Tax Digital and VAT: are you ready?

Making Tax Digital VAT: are you ready?

Making Tax Digital (MTD) will commence in April 2019 under the current Government timetable.  Initially this will only be for VAT purposes, with the wider roll out of MTD having been delayed until the system has been shown to work well for VAT and not before April 2020 at the earliest.

Hawsons’ Senior Tax Manager Craig Walker comments on what the introduction of MTD will mean for VAT registered businesses and what they should do to prepare.

 

What is Making Tax Digital?

MTD is the biggest shake-up of the tax system in 20 years and will fundamentally change the way taxpayers report to HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) and keep their business records.  Taxpayers will be required to keep records digitally and generally update HMRC more frequently than is currently the case.

 

When is MTD being introduced for VAT purposes?

MTD will be introduced for VAT in April 2019.

The implementation of MTD for other taxes has been delayed until at least 2020.

 

How will it work?

From April 2019 VAT registered businesses with a turnover above the VAT threshold (currently £85,000) will be required to:

  • keep VAT records digitally, and
  • submit VAT returns using MTD compatible software.

 

Digital record keeping

VAT records will need to be kept digitally using ‘functional compatible software’, including:

  • your business name, address, VAT registration number, and any VAT accounting schemes you use,
  • the time and value of each supply made and the VAT rate charged,
  • the time and value of each supply received and the amount of input VAT you will recover,
  • the amount of any adjustments or corrections,
  • the VAT account audit trail between your business records and VAT return

The digital records must be kept for at least six years (or 10 years if you use VATMOSS).

 

MTD compatible software

You will be required to use a third-party software programme which can connect with HMRC’s systems via the Application Programme Interfaces (“API”) platform.  HMRC will not be offering software.

If you wish to continue to keep books and records on spreadsheets, you will need to use third party bridging software to convert this information into a format that is compatible with HMRC’s API platform.

 

How do I prepare for MTD?

It is vital that businesses start to prepare for MTD now.

You should consider whether your current system of record keeping will meet the requirements of MTD for VAT.  If all or part of your VAT records are currently kept on paper, you will need to consider how best to digitise your records.

You will need to ensure that the software you are using to submit your VAT returns is MTD compatible.

 

How can Hawsons help?

We can help you to review your current VAT record keeping arrangements and identify the changes that will be necessary to comply with the requirements of MTD.

You may wish to consider utilising cloud-based accounting software and many of our clients are already enjoying the benefits of this.  At Hawsons we are experienced in the use of the accounting packages marketed by the major cloud providers, such as Quickbooks, Xero, Sage and Freeagent.  We can assist you in your choice of software, help you to set this up, and offer training for you and your staff.

These packages can allow you to capture receipts and payments from your bank account directly, use your Smartphone to photograph expenses and have this information filed straight into your accounts, keep track of your accounts 24/7, and easily create quotes and invoices for your customers.

We would be happy to give you a demonstration of how cloud accounting software can help your business.

 

If you wish to discuss the implications of MTD for you and your business, please get in touch with your usual Hawsons contact.

 

 

Craig Walker is a senior tax manager at the firm. He advises on all matters tax related, both corporate and personal, including income, capital gains and inheritance. For more details and advice, please contact Craig on [email protected] or 0114 266 7141.

Tax Rates 2018/2019

Tax Rates 2018/2019

Introduction to tax rates

We have summarised the key rates and allowances which are fundamental to our business and personal lives. We are sure that you will find them a useful point of reference and have set out below a few examples of how they can be used.

 

Capital Allowances: Plant & Machinery
  • The cost of purchasing capital equipment in a business is not a revenue tax deductible expense. However tax relief is available on certain capital expenditure in the form of capital allowances.
  • Plant and machinery allowances may be available on items such as machines, equipment, furniture, certain fixtures in a building (‘integral features’), computers, cars, vans and similar equipment used in a business.
  • There are special rules for cars and certain ‘environmentally friendly’ equipment.
  • Plant and machinery allowances may be available to owners of commercial property which is let out to a business.
  • The Annual Investment Allowance (AIA) gives a 100% write-off on most types of plant and machinery (but not cars) up to an annual limit.
  • Writing down allowances (WDA) are given for expenditure for which AIA is not, or cannot be, claimed.
  • Structures and Buildings Allowance is introduced from 29 October 2018 at a rate of 2% on a straight line basis

AIA

  • Special rules apply to accounting periods straddling the dates shown in the tables below.
  • The AIA may need to be shared between certain businesses under common ownership.

AIA limits – companies

Expenditure incurred:

Annual limit

From 1 January 2016 £200,000
From 1 January 2019 £1,000,000

AIA limits – sole traders and partnerships

Expenditure incurred:

Annual limit

From 1 January 2016 £200,000
From 1 January 2019 £1,000,000

Other plant and machinery allowances

  • Expenditure upon which AIA is not given/claimed will obtain relief through the ‘main rate pool’ or the ‘special rate pool’ rather than each item being dealt with separately.
  • The annual rate of WDA is 18% in the ‘main rate pool’ and 8% in the ‘special rate pool’.
  • A 100% first year allowance (FYA) may be available on certain energy efficient plant and cars.

Cars

  • For expenditure incurred on cars, costs are generally allocated to one of the two plant and machinery pools.
  • AIA is not available on any car but a 100% first year allowance may be available on certain cars. To qualify for first year allowance, the car must be purchased new.

Cars acquired from April 2018

Emissions (g/km)

Pool

Allowance

≤50 Main rate 100% FYA
≤ 110 Main rate 18% WDA
>110 Special rate 8% WDA

 

Capital Gains Tax
  • CGT is payable by individuals, trustees and personal representatives (PRs). Companies pay corporation tax on their capital gains.
  • There are annual tax free allowances (the ‘annual exempt amount’) for individuals, trustees and PRs. Companies do not have an annual exempt amount.
  • For individuals net gains are added to total taxable income to determine the appropriate rate of tax. The standard rate applies only to the net gains which, when added to total taxable income, do not exceed the basic rate band.
  • Gains which qualify for Entrepreneurs’ Relief  or Investors’ Relief are charged at 10% for the first £10m of qualifying gains.

Rates and annual exemption 2018/19

Individuals 2018/19
  £
Exemption 11,700
Standard rate 10%**
Higher rate* 20%**

* For higher rate and additional rate taxpayers.

** Higher rates of 18% and 28% may apply to the disposal of certain residential property.

Trustees 2018/19
  £
Exemption 5,850
Rate 20%
Car Benefits
  • The car benefit is calculated by multiplying the car’s list price, when new, by a percentage linked to the car’s CO2 emissions.
  • For diesel cars generally add a 4% supplement (unless the car is registered on or after 1 September 2017 and meets the Euro 6d emissions standard) but the maximum is still 37%.
  • The list price includes accessories.
  • The list price is reduced for capital contributions made by the employee up to £5,000.
  • Special rules may apply to cars provided for disabled employees.
  • For cars registered before 1 January 1998 and cars with no agreed CO2 emissions the charge is based on engine size.
CO2 emissions (g/km) 
(round down to nearest 5g/km for values above 95)
% of car’s list price taxed
0-50 13
51 up to 75 16
76 up to 94 19
95 20
100 21
105 22
110 23
115 24
120 25
125 26
130 27
135 28
140 29
145 30
150 31
155 32
160 33
165 34
170 35
175 36
180 and above 37
 
Car Fuel Benefit
  • Car fuel benefit applies if an employee has the benefit of private fuel for a company car.
  • The benefit is calculated by applying the percentage used to calculate the car benefit by a ‘fuel charge multiplier’.
  • The charge is proportionately reduced if provision of private fuel ceases part way through the year. The fuel benefit is reduced to nil only if the employee pays for all private fuel.
Car fuel benefit 2018/19  
Fuel charge multiplier £23,400
 
Company Cars: Advisory Fuel Rates
  • Advisory rates only apply where employers reimburse employees for business travel in a company car or require employees to repay the cost of fuel used for private travel in a company car.
  • If the rate paid per mile of business travel is no higher than the advisory rate for the particular engine size and fuel type of the car, HMRC will accept that there is no taxable profit and no Class 1 NIC liability.

The advisory fuel rates for journeys undertaken on or after 1 March 2018 are:

Engine size Petrol
1400cc or less 11p
1401cc – 2000cc 14p
Over 2000cc 22p
Engine size Diesel
1600cc or less 9p
1601cc – 2000cc 11p
Over 2000cc 13p
Engine size LPG
1400cc or less 7p
1401cc – 2000cc 8p
Over 2000cc 13p

Hybrid cars are treated as either petrol or diesel cars for this purpose.

Child Benefit
Child Benefit is receivable by a person responsible for each child until they reach 16, or 19 if they stay in education or training.If the person (or their spouse or partner) has ‘adjusted net income’ above £50,000 the person with the highest income has to pay some of the Child Benefit as a tax charge.Where adjusted net income is more than £60,000 a year, the tax charge equals the Child Benefit received.

 

Rates – 2018/19 £ per week
Eldest/Only Child £20.70
Other Children £13.70

 

Corporation Tax
  • Corporation tax rates are set for each Financial Year. A Financial Year runs from 1 April to the following 31 March.
  • If the accounting period of a company straddles the 31 March, the profits are apportioned on a time basis to each Financial Year.
  • The Northern Ireland Executive has committed to setting the rate of corporation tax at 12.5% when the Northern Ireland Executive demonstrates its finances are on a sustainable footing.
Year to 31.3.19 Rate %
All profits 19
Year to 31.3.18 Rate %
All profits 19
Employee's Statutory Payments

Statutory pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer if an employee is not at work for a variety of reasons.
  • There are detailed conditions for an employee to qualify for any of these statutory payments.
  • Employees are only eligible for a statutory payment if they have sufficient average weekly earnings of at least the lower earnings limit.

Statutory Sick Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer if an employee is too ill to work.
  • SSP is generally payable for a period up to 28 weeks.

Statutory Maternity Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer when an employee takes time off to have a baby.
  • SMP is payable for a period up to 39 weeks.

Statutory Paternity Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer when an employee takes time off during their partner’s Statutory Maternity Pay period.
  • Payment is for a period of either one or two complete weeks.

Shared Parental Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer when an employee takes time off following the curtailment of the period of SMP by the mother.
  • Payment is for up to a maximum of 37 weeks and is dependent on the mother’s unused SMP period.

Statutory Adoption Pay

  • Payments may be required from an employer when an employee takes time off when they adopt a child.
  • Payment is for a period up to 39 weeks.
2018/19 Statutory pay rates – 
average weekly earnings £116 or over
 
Statutory Sick Pay £92.05
Statutory Maternity Pay  
First six weeks 90% of weekly earnings
Next 33 weeks £145.18*
Statutory Paternity Pay – 2 weeks £145.18*
Statutory Adoption Pay – 39 weeks  
First six weeks 90% of weekly earnings
Next 33 weeks £145.18*
Shared Parental Pay £145.18*

*Or 90% of weekly earnings if lower.

 
 
Income Tax Allowances
A personal allowance gives an individual an annual amount of income free from income tax.Income above the personal allowances is subject to income tax.The personal allowance will be reduced if an individual’s ‘adjusted net income’ is above £100,000. The allowance is reduced by £1 for every £2 of income above £100,000.An individual born before 6 April 1935 may be entitled to a married couple’s allowance but this is reduced if ‘adjusted net income’ is above the married couple’s allowance income limit (see table below).Marriage allowance – 10% of the personal allowance may be transferable between certain spouses where neither pays tax above the basic rate. The Marriage allowance is not available to couples entitled to the Married Couple’s allowance.
Income tax personal allowances 2018/19 £
Personal Allowance 11,850
Marriage Allowance 1,190
Blind person’s allowance 2,390
Married couple’s allowance
Either partner born before 6 April 1935
 
– Maximum reduction in tax bill 869.50
– Minimum reduction in tax bill 336.00
Married couple’s allowance income limit
Reduce married couple’s allowance by £1 for every £2 of ‘adjusted net income’ above this limit
28,900
 
Income Tax Rates
  • Income tax applies to the amount of income after deduction of personal allowances.
  • Income is taxed in a specific order with savings and dividend income taxed last.
  • Dividend income and savings income falling within the dividend and savings allowances still form part of total income of an individual.
  • The starting rate band is only applicable to savings income. The 0% rate is not available if the taxable amount of non-savings income exceeds the starting rate band.
  • The Scottish Parliament set the rates of income tax and the limits at which these rates apply for Scottish residents on non-savings and non-dividend income.

Income tax rates 2018/19

Band of taxable income Rate Rate if dividends
£   % %
0 – 5,000 Starting rate for savings 0 N/A
0 – 34,500 Basic rate 20 7.5
34,501 – 150,000 Higher rate 40 32.5
Over 150,000 Additional rate 45 38.1
Special rates for savings and dividend income falling into above bands of taxable income
Savings Allowance
Basic rate taxpayers 1,000 0  
Higher rate taxpayers 500 0  
Additional rate taxpayers Nil N/A  
Dividend Allowance
for all taxpayers 2,000   0
Income Tax Rates - Scotland
  • Scottish resident taxpayers are liable on non-savings and non-dividend income as set out below.
  • Savings income and dividend income are taxed using UK tax rates and bands.
Band of taxable income Rate
£   %
0 – 2,000 Starter rate 19
2,001 – 12,150 Basic rate 20
12,151 – 31,580 Intermediate rate 21
31,581 – 150,000 Higher rate 41
Over 150,000 Top rate 46
ISAs
 
The income from ISA investments is exempt from income tax. Any capital gains made on investments held in an ISA are exempt from capital gains tax.Savers are able to subscribe any amounts into a cash ISA, a stocks and shares ISA or an innovative finance ISA subject to not exceeding the overall annual investment limit.Investors may transfer their investments from one kind of ISA to another.A Help to Buy ISA provides a tax free savings account for first time buyers wishing to save for a home. The scheme provides a government bonus to each person who has saved into a Help to Buy ISA at the point they use their savings to purchase their first home. For every £200 a first time buyer saves, the government will provide a £50 bonus up to a maximum bonus of £3,000 on £12,000 of savings. The bonus will be paid in the form of a voucher when the first home is purchased. Conditions apply to the account holder and to the property purchased.The Lifetime ISA is available for those aged between 18 and 40. Save up to £4,000 each year up until the age of 50, and receive a government bonus of 25% (a bonus of up to £1,000 a year). Savers can use some or all of the money to buy their first home, or keep it until they are aged 60 when the account can be accessed tax free. Conditions apply to the account holder and property purchased.  Penalties apply if funds are withdrawn in other circumstances.

 

ISA limits 2018/19  
Overall annual investment limit £20,000
Junior ISA annual investment limit £4,260
Help to Buy ISA monthly subscription limit (initial deposit limit £1,000) £200
Lifetime ISA annual investment limit £4,000
 
Inheritance Tax
  • IHT may be payable when an individual’s estate is worth more than the IHT nil rate band when they die.
  • Lifetime and death transfers between UK domiciled spouses are exempt from IHT.
  • For 2017/18, a further nil rate band of £100,000 may be available in relation to current or former residences.
  • The IHT threshold available on death may be increased for surviving spouses as there may have been a nil rate band not used, or not fully used, on the previous death.
  • There are reliefs for some business and farming assets which reduce their value for IHT purposes.
  • IHT may also be payable on gifts made in an individual’s lifetime but within seven years of death.
  • Some lifetime gifts are exempt.
  • Transfers of assets into trust made in an individual’s lifetime may be subject to an immediate charge but at lifetime rates.
  • There are also charges on some trusts.

IHT rates and nil rate band 2018/19 and 2017/18

IHT nil rate £325,000
Lifetime rate 20%
Death rate 40%
Death rate if sufficient charitable legacies made 36%

IHT reliefs for lifetime gifts

Annual exemption £3,000
Small gifts £250
Marriage  
– parent £5,000
– grandparent £2,500
– bride/groom £2,500
– other £1,000

IHT – reduced charge on gifts within seven years of death

Years before death % of death charge
0-3 100
3-4 80
4-5 60
5-6 40
6-7 20
Land and Building Transaction Tax

Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT) is payable on land and property transactions in Scotland.

LBTT (Residential property)

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 145,000 0%
145,001 – 250,000 2%
250,001 – 325,000 5%
325,001 – 750,000 10%
750,001 and above 12%

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band. Rates may be increased by 3% where further residential properties, costing over £40,000, are acquired.

Rates may be increased by 4% (3% prior to 25 January 2019)  where further residential properties, costing over £40,000, are acquired.

First-time buyer relief raises the zero tax threshold for first-time buyers from £145,000 to £175,000.

LBTT (Non-residential)

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 150,000 Nil
150,001 – 250,000 1%
Over 250,000 5%

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band. Different rates and bands applied prior to 25 January 2019.

Land Transaction Tax
Land Transaction Tax (LTT) is payable on land and property transactions in Wales from 1 April 2018. Prior to 1 April 2018 SDLT applied in Wales.

LTT (Residential property)

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 180,000 0%
180,001 – 250,000 3.5%
250,001 – 400,000 5%
400,001 – 750,000 7.5%
750,001 – 1,500,000 10%
1,500,000 and above 12%

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band. Rates may be increased by 3% where further residential properties, costing over £40,000, are acquired.

LTT (Non-residential)

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 150,000 Nil
150,001 – 250,000 1%
250,001 – 1,000,000 5%
Over 1,000,000 6%

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

Mileage Allowance Payments
  • MAPs represent the maximum tax free mileage allowances an employee can receive from their employer for using their own vehicle for business journeys.
  • An employer is allowed to pay an employee a certain amount of MAPs each year without having to report payments to HMRC.
  • If the employee receives less than the statutory rate, tax relief can be claimed on the difference.

MAP rates per business mile 2018/19 and 2017/18

Cars and vans Rate per mile
Up to 10,000 miles 45p
Over 10,000 miles 25p
Bicycles 20p
Motorcycles 24p
Minimum Wage
  • National Minimum Wage rates apply to employees up to the age of 24.
  • National Living Wage rates apply to employees 25 and over.
  • The Apprentice rate applies to apprentices under 19, or 19 and over in the first year of apprenticeship.
  • Penalties apply to employers who fail to pay minimum wages.
Age 25+ 21-24 18-20 16-17 Apprentice
From 1 April 2018 £7.83 £7.38 £5.90 £4.20 £3.70
 
National Insurance Contributions
  • Employees start paying Class 1 NIC from age 16 (if sufficient earnings).
  • Employers pay Class 1 NIC in accordance with the table below.
  • Employer NIC for employees under the age of 21 and apprentices under the age of 25 is reduced from the normal rate of 13.8% to 0% up to the Upper Secondary Threshold.
  • Employees’ Class 1 NIC stop when they reach their State Pension age. The employer’s contribution continues.

Employees – Class 1 – 2018/19

Earnings per week %
Up to £162 Nil*
£162.01 – £892 12
Over £892 2

* Entitlement to state pension and other contribution-based benefits is retained for earnings between £116 and £162 per week.

Employers – Class 1 – 2018/19

Earnings per week %
Up to £162 Nil
Over £162 13.8
Upper Secondary Threshold (for under 21s and apprentices under 25)
Up to £892
0%

Other National Insurance payable by employers

Class 1A – 13.8% on broadly all taxable benefits provided to employees

Class 1B – 13.8% on PAYE Settlement Agreements

Self-employed – Class 2 and 4

  • A self-employed person starts paying Class 2 and Class 4 NIC from 16 or over (if sufficient profits)
  • Class 2 NIC stop when a person reaches State Pension age
  • Class 4 NIC stop from the start of the tax year after the one in which the person reaches State Pension age.

Self-employed – Class 2 – 2018/19

Flat rate per week £2.95
Small Profits Threshold* £6,205 per year

* No Class 2 is due if the amount of trading profits assessable to income tax and Class 4 NIC is below this figure. However, a person might decide to carry on paying class 2 voluntarily to accrue entitlement to the State Pension and entitlement to other benefits.  

Class 4 – 2018/19

Annual profits %
Up to £8,424 Nil
£8,424.01 – £46,350 9
Over 46,350 2

Class 3

  • A person needs 35 years (30 years if State Pension age is before 6 April 2016) of NIC to get a full State Pension.
  • Class 3 voluntary contributions can be paid to fill or avoid gaps in a NI record.

Class 3 – 2018/19

Flat rate per week £14.65

  • Employees start paying Class 1 NIC from age 16 (if sufficient earnings).
  • Employers pay Class 1 NIC in accordance with the table below.
  • Employer NIC for employees under the age of 21 and apprentices under the age of 25 is reduced from the normal rate of 13.8% to 0% up to the Upper Secondary Threshold.
  • Employees’ Class 1 NIC stop when they reach their State Pension age . The employer’s contribution continues.

 

Pensions: Automatic Enrolment
Auto enrolment places new duties on employers to automatically enrol ‘workers’ into a work based pension scheme. Employers are required to automatically enrol all ‘eligible jobholders’ into a qualifying pension scheme and pay pension contributions on their behalf.

 

Phasing in of contributions

  Employer minimum contribution Total minimum contribution
Employer’s staging date to 5 April 2018 1% 2%
6 April 2018 to 5 April 2019 2% 5%
6 April 2019 onwards 3% 8%

Where the employer does not make the total minimum contribution the employee is obliged to pay the balance.

  2018/19
Automatic enrolment earnings trigger £10,000
Qualifying earnings band – lower limit £6,032
Qualifying earnings band – upper limit £46,350
 
Pensions: Tax Relief on Contributions
  • Tax relief available for personal contributions is the higher of £3,600 (gross) or 100% of relevant earnings.
  • Any contributions in excess of £40,000, whether personal or by the employer, may be subject to income tax on the individual.
  • The limit may be reduced to £4,000 once money purchase pensions are accessed.
  • Where the £40,000 limit is not fully used it may be possible to carry the unused amount forward for three years.
  • The annual allowance is tapered for those with adjusted income over £150,000. For every £2 of income over £150,000 an individual’s annual allowance will be reduced by £1, down to a minimum of £10,000.
  • Employers will obtain tax relief on employer contributions if they are paid and made ‘wholly and exclusively’ for the purposes of the business. The tax relief for large contributions may be spread over several years.
Property Allowance
  • A property allowance is available to individuals.
  • The property allowance will not apply to partnership income or to income on which rent a room relief is given.
Income up to £1,000 Property income assessable NIL
Income over £1,000 Election to deduct £1,000 rather than the actual expenses
 
Self-Assessment: Key Dates
31 July 2018 – Second payment on account for 2017/18 tax year.
5 October 2018 – Deadline for notifying HMRC of new sources of income (including the Child Benefit charge) if no tax return has been issued for 2017/18 tax year.
31 October 2018 – Deadline for submission of 2017/18 non-electronic returns.
30 December 2018 – Deadline for submission of 2017/18 electronic tax returns if ‘coding out’ of any underpayment is required
31 January 2019 – Deadline for filing electronic tax returns for 2017/18. Balancing payment due for 2017/18 tax year. First payment on account due for 2018/19 tax year.
 
Stamp Duty & Stamp Duty Land Tax
 
When you buy shares, you usually pay a tax or duty of 0.5% on the transaction. If you buy shares electronically Stamp Duty Reserve Tax (SDRT) is payable. For shares purchased using a stock transfer form, you will pay Stamp Duty if the transaction is over £1,000.SDLT

 

  • SDLT is payable on land and property transactions in England and Northern Ireland.
  • Property transactions in Scotland are subject to Land and Buildings Transaction Tax.
  • Property transactions in Wales are subject to Land Transaction Tax (LTT) from 1 April 2018. Prior to April 2018 SDLT applied in Wales.

Residential property

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 125,000 0%
125,001 – 250,000 2%
250,001 – 925,000 5%
925,001 – 1,500,000 10%
1,500,001 and above 12%

From April 2016 these rates may be increased by 3% where further residential properties, costing over £40,000, are acquired.

First time buyer relief

From 22 November 2017 first time buyers may be eligible for first time buyer relief on purchases of residential property up to £500,000. The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 300,000 0%
300,001 – 500,000 5%
for purchases over 500,000 normal rates apply

Non-residential SDLT rates

Consideration (£) Rate
0 – 150,000 0%
150,001 – 250,000 2%
Over 250,000 5%
 
 
State Pension
  • The basic State Pension is a regular payment from the government that an individual may be entitled to when they reach State Pension age.
  • The basic State Pension depends on the number of years an individual has paid National Insurance or has National Insurance credits, eg while unemployed or claiming certain benefits.
  • To receive the basic State Pension an individual must have paid or been credited with National Insurance contributions (NIC).
  • From 2016 the State Pension has been reformed into a new single-tier state pension. In order to benefit from the full amount the individual will need 35 years, rather than the previous 30 years of NIC or credits for the full amount, with pro-rating where 35 years is not achieved. You will usually need 10 qualifying years to get any new State Pension. The amount an individual receives can be higher or lower depending on their National Insurance record. It will only be higher if you have over a certain amount of Additional State Pension.
  • Currently an individual may also be entitled to the Additional State Pension. How much an individual gets depends on the number of qualifying years of NIC, the amount of earnings and whether the individual has been contracted out of the scheme.
Weekly State Pension 2018/19  
Basic – single person £125.95
Basic – married couple £201.45
New state pension £164.35
 
Tax Reliefs for Individuals

Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS)

The Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS) provides tax relief for individuals prepared to invest in new and growing companies. Investors can obtain generous income tax and capital gains tax (CGT) breaks for their investment and companies can use the relief to attract additional investment to develop their business. Individuals are entitled to relief on investments in certain unquoted trading companies through EIS.

Maximum investment per annum £1,000,000
Additional investment limit where investing in knowledge-intensive companies £1,000,000
Income tax relief 30%
CGT treatment on disposal if held for 3 years Exempt

Capital gains from the disposal of other assets may be deferred by making an EIS investment.

Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme (SEIS)

The Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS) provides tax relief for individuals prepared to invest in new and growing companies. Investors can obtain generous income tax and capital gains tax (CGT) breaks for their investment and companies can use the relief to attract additional investment to develop their business. A junior version of EIS known as the Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme (SEIS) has been introduced.

Maximum investment per annum £100,000
Income tax relief 50%
CGT treatment on disposal if held for 3 years Exempt

An individual who makes a capital gain on another asset and uses the amount of the gain to make a SEIS investment will not pay tax on 50% of the gain (subject to certain conditions).

Social Investment Relief (SIR)

Social Investment Relief (SIR) is designed to encourage private individuals to invest in social enterprises including charities. Individuals are entitled to relief on their investment:

Maximum investment per annum £1,000,000
Income tax relief 30%
CGT treatment on disposal if held for 3 years Exempt

Capital gains from the disposal of other assets may be deferred by making a SIR investment.

(All reliefs are subject to detailed conditions being met.)

Venture Capital Trusts (VCTs)

Venture Capital Trusts (VCTs) are designed to encourage private individuals to invest in smaller high-risk unquoted trading companies. VCTs operate by indirect investment through a mediated fund. In effect they are very like the investment trusts that are obtainable on the stock exchange, albeit in a high-risk environment. Individuals are entitled to relief on investments in VCTs.

Maximum investment per annum £200,000
Income tax relief 30%
Dividend income Exempt
Capital gains treatment on disposal Exempt
Trade Allowance
  • A Trade Allowance is available to individuals.
  • There is an equivalent rule for certain miscellaneous income. This will apply to the extent that the £1,000 trading allowance is not used against trading income.
  • The trade allowance is not available against partnership income.
Income up to £1,000 Profits assessable NIL
Income over £1,000 Election to deduct £1,000 allowance rather than the actual expenses
 
Van Benefit
  • Van benefit is chargeable if the van is available for an employee’s private use.
  • A fuel benefit may also be chargeable if an employee has the benefit of private fuel paid for in respect of a company van.
  • The charges do not apply to vans if a ‘restricted private use condition’ is met throughout the year.
  • A reduced benefit charge may apply to vans which cannot emit CO2 when driven.
Van benefits 2018/19
Van benefit £3,350
Fuel benefit £633
 
VAT
  • Registered businesses charge VAT on their sales. This is known as output VAT and the sales are referred to as outputs.
  • Similarly VAT is charged on most goods and services purchased by the business. This is known as input VAT.
  • There are three rates: standard which applies to most goods and services, reduced rate for some goods and services such as home energy and zero rate goods and services, for example, most food and children’s clothes.
  • Some supplies are exempt from VAT for example postage stamps, financial and insurance transactions.
  • A business is required to register for VAT if the value of taxable supplies exceeds the annual registration limit.
  • The government has frozen the VAT registration and deregistration limits for two years from 1 April 2018.
VAT – rates and limits 2018/19  
Standard rate 20%
Reduced rate 5%
Annual Registration Limit
– from 1.4.18 – 31.3.19
£85,000
Annual Deregistration Limit
– from 1.4.18 – 31.3.19
£83,000
 

Disclaimer

This article is published for the information of clients. It provides only an overview of the regulations in force at the date of publication and no action should be taken without consulting the detailed legislation or seeking professional advice. Therefore no responsibility for loss occasioned by any person acting or refraining from action as a result of the material contained in this publication can be accepted by the authors or the firm.